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Midterm1ProtozoanstoBryozoansProtozoans Unicellular OrganismsAnimallike traits no cell wall heterotrophic and capable of movementthe protozoansHigh surfacetovolume ratio an advantage because diffusion is an important process for many of their functionsEverything they do and how they do it is packed into a single cell In animals organs and tissues become specialized for certain functions for protozoans its their organelles that take on the same functionsPermeable integument or skin water and low molecular weight substances dissolve in it Oxygen required for metabolism and metabolic wastes generated by metabolism diffuse across the surface giving the plasma membrane respiratory and excretory functionsNucleolus and chromosomes contains the genetic material and will be involved in providing copies of itself for new cells in the reproductive systemThe Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum and the lysosomes that they produce fuse with ingested food vacuoles in some protozoans food is always ingested at the same place on the cell surface the cytostome cell mouth Undigested food is removed at a cytoproct or the cell anusWater expulsion vesicle also called a contractile vesicle is an osmoregulatory organelle removing excess water that diffuses into the cell in freshwater protists which are hyperosmotic When the salinity osmotic pressure of two solutions is compared the one with the higher salinity is hyperosmotic to the other to the surrounding waterProtozoans have endoskeletons formed from the microtubular cytoskeleton of the cytoplasm or exoskeletons secreted as shells or testsSome of these singlecell organisms are capable of defending themselves using organelles such as trichocysts and others can orient to external stimuli and detect light with stigmataMovement is even controlled by organelles ciliaflagella and the pseudopodia in the amoeba
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