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Terms Midterm 1.docx

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University of Ottawa

Aboral surface In radially symmetric animals there is no anterior posterior left or right sides to the animal Instead we refer to the two sides of the animal by the location of the mouth In this case the side opposite the mouth L ab awayos mouthAcetabulum One of two suckers found on the digenic flukes trematodes The oral sucker surrounds the mouth and the acetabulum is located on the ventral surface L acetabuluma little vinegar cupAcoelomate Triploblastic animals that do not have an internal body cavity This includes the flatworms and ribbon worms Although the term could be applied to other lower phyla it is most accurately used with the triploblasts rather than diploblasts Gr a notkoilos hollowAmebocyte A cell in a multicellular organism that moves using amoeboid movement Amebocytes often are involved in transporting materials defending against invading organisms or cleaning up dead debris and materials Gr amoibe changekytos cavity or cellAmmonia Nitrogenous waste formed from removing the amino group from amino acids Ammonia is toxic and can only be tolerated in low concentrations Animals that use ammonia as their metabolic waste also have lots of water available to remove the toxin which alters pH reacts with alphaketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle to form glutamate and disrupts the cycleAmoebozoa An outer nonliving shell or case that surrounds an organism L testum crucible or shellAncestrula The founding zooid that undergoes asexual budding to form a bryozoan colony L antecedere to go beforeAquiferous system This type of system is found in sponges and consists of the canals and chambers through which water flows Water is pumped through the system by the choanocytes L aqua waterArcheocyte Cell capable of a variety of functions or of differentiating into a variety of cell types with different functions Examples include the wandering amebocytes in the mesohyl of a sponge Gr archein to beginkytos cavity or cellAsconoid Of the three different sponge architectures this is the simplest It consists of a central choanocyte lined spongocoel that opens to the outside directly through the osculum Water enters the spongocoel after passing through the dermal poresAsexual reproduction Organisms that do not reproduce by recombination of genetic material contained in gametes There is no combination of a haploid sperm and egg to form a zygote L asexualis sexlessAssymetric body Animals that have no axis of symmetry Examples are sponges and gastropodsAuricle Chamber of the heart that receives the blood from outside the heart L auris earBilateral symmetry In organisms that have a bilaterally symmetric organization there is only one way that the plane of symmetry can pass through the longitudinal axis and create two identical halves L bis twicelatus sideBilaterally symmetric body In organisms that are bilaterally symmetric there is only one way that the plane of symmetry can pass through the longitudinal axis and create two identical halves L bis twicelatus sideBinary fission Cell division where the parent cell divides into two daughter cells equal in size to each otherBiradial symmetry The organism appears radially symmetric but at least one set of structures is paired This results in only two planes of symmetry that pass through the oralaboral axis of the animal L bis twiceradius ray or spokeBlastopore The opening to the primitive gut archenteron that will develop into either the mouth or anus The blastopore forms during gastrulation Gr blastos germ or shootporos opening or poreBlastula A stage in the development of multicellular animals in which only one cell layer is present the blastoderm the cavity the cells surround is the blastocoel In eggs with little yolk the embryo resembles a hollow ball in eggs with yolk the appearance varies depending on species Gr blastos germ or shootBudding A form of asexual reproduction where a small part of the body separates from the parent and develops into a complete organismCecum A blindended pouch that extends from the main digestive tract Digestive ceca may be the sites for final digestion of ingested food or may be regions of the gut with specialized enzymes or conditions required for digestion L dis apartgerere to carryLcaecumCellular grade Organisms with this type of cellular organization are referred to as the Parazoa They have distinct cells that function independently of each other even though some cells may take on specialized functions Groups of cells never work together and function as a tissue L cella cell or chamberCercaria A stage in the life cycle of trematode flukes The cercaria develops from redia found in the intermediate host This tadpolelike organism is released from the intermediate host to locate either the primary host or another intermediate host Gr kerkos tailChoanocyte This unique collarshaped cells whose flagella are responsible for generating the water current in the sponge As the flagella beat food particles are trapped against the microvilli that form the collar Choanocytes are also found in some colonial protists Grchoane funnelkytos cavity or cellChoanoderm The layer of choanocyte cells lining the different parts of the aquiferous system in a sponge in the asconoid architecture the spongocoel in syconoid the radial canals and in leuconoid sponges the choanocyte chambers Gr choane funnelderma skinCilia A cellular hairlike locomotory structures that consists of an extension of the plasma membrane surrounding a 92 organization of microtubules Unlike flagella cilia are shorter and more numerous on the cell surface L cilium eyelash or eyelidCirri Slender filamentous structures fused cilia in protozoa attachment appendages in sessile echinoderms or a copulatory organ found in some invertebrates L cirri curlCircular muscleCnidariaCnidocil A modified flagellum on the cnidocyte that causes the nematocyst inside to fire The stimulus involves some sort of chemical cue touching the cnidocil doesnt fire the nematocyst Gr knide nettleL cilium eyelash or eyelidCnidocytes Specialized cells found only in the Cnidaria When these cells evert a nematocyst is discharged The nematocyst may act as a stinger or a sticky thread to entangle and capture prey Gr knide nettlekytos cavity or cellColeom A true body cavity completely lined by mesoderm which forms the peritoneum Animals with true coeloms are referred to as eucolomates Gr koiloma cavity
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