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Key words protozoans92 organizationsliding microtubules used in locomotionA eukaryotic flagellum is a bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubule dublets surrounding two central single microtubulesdynein arms central microtubules and peripheral microtubules ammoniachemical formula NH3toxic waste that is the result of metabolic activitiesamoebozoamajority that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow their pseudopodia are characteristically blunt and fingerlike called lobopodiathe cell is typically divided into a granular central mass less viscous called endoplasm and a clear outer layer called ectoplasmduring locomotion the endoplasm flows forwards and the ectoplasm runs backwards along the outside of the cellpart of the class sarcodinesapicomlexalarge group of protists that which contain an organelle called an apicoplast nonphotosynthetic plastid in the sporozoite possess an apical complex structure useful in penetrating a hostex malarial life cycleasexual reproductionoccurs in the intermediate host ex human in the malarial life cyclecloning or fragmentation mitotic divisionsalso can be by budding or binary fissionbinary fissionasexual reproductiona living cell divided into two equal daughter cellsDNA replication then chromosome segregation then cytokinesisciliasmall multiple hairs which aid in movementmovement by using the metachronal wave dont all beat at the same time and positionduring the recovery stroke the cilia curl inward to reduce dragthe ciliophora is a phylum of protozoa which utilize ciliacan fuse together to form undulating membranes membranes or cirrus structuresconjugationform of sexual reproduction in which genetic information is exchanged between cellsconjugation of ciliophoramicronucleus is only used for conjugation so that it is never damagedtwo cells bind and undergo conjugation and 4 micronuclei are formed and exchange materialtwo micronuclei and the macronucleus degenerate building blocks still floating aroundsynkaryon forms from the fusion of micronuclei in each conjuganttwo haploid nuclei undergo three mitotic divisions to produce 8 micronuclei4 micronuclei become macronuclei 3 disappear and remaining become micronucleusmitotic divisions of micronuclei and macronucleus produce 8 cells
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