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Protozoans.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO2135
Professor
All

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Description
Protozoansgroup of single celled organisms with animallike characteristic Typically seen as precursors of animals that exist Things animals must doMaintain water and salt balance you must have a certain salinity within cells Marine environment is easiest environment to live in because the cells are isotonic to water around it When we move into fresh water environment cells are hypertonic to freshwater outside In terrestrial environment we must water proof to prevent water loss Obtain oxygen oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrial cycleneed ATP must absorb from environment around Remove metabolic waste metabolism when it burns organic compounds they often have nitrogen molecules in them Take organic chemical compounds and break them apart to gain energy if energy is from amino acids they must be deaminated the key process of metabolism is this removal of nitrogenNitrogen is extremely toxic ammonia has the potential to completely shut down the krebs cycle at any particular level Ammonia is an extremely dangerous waste if it accumulates to any degree In aquatic enviro the nitrogenous molecules can just diffuse out and in marine enviro even better because theres no tonicity difference Ammonia gets packed into compounds with more and more nitrogen per molecule resulting in less and less toxic compounds that the body can tolerate Uric acid and Guanine have extremely low toxicity nitrogenous bases of DNA Living at optimal surface to volume ratio large surface area compare to small volumeObtain food all will obtain food by either phagocytosis nutrients are particulate or pinocytosis nutrients are dissolved In both processes we have an invagination of the outer membrane food particle is surrounded by plasma membrane and being blubbed off into a food vacuole into the cell Now we have to digest that material down and absorb the nutrients Problem we have is that the food ingested is not capable of diffusing across plasma membrane so a lysosome containing digestive enzymes fuses with the food vacuole and releases the enzymescarbsetc food gets broken down and they can be released across the membrane This protects the cytoplasm from the destructive enzymes in terms of intracellular digestion Enzymes that fuse with the food vacuole after phagocytosis or pinocytosis change with time The first ones are all optimal under alkali conditions ultimately reach a point where they do not have the catabolic capacity to finish the job so another set of enzymes will switch on These enzymes are all optimal under acidic conditions Enzymes that fuse to ensure we get complete digestion This sets the stage for digestion in all animals alkali and acidic stages be able to move they all move by either pseudopodscytoplasmic streaming or undulipods cilia or flagella cytoplasmic externsion with microtubular array in a 92 organizationsome wont move at all reffered to as parasites The key to undulipods is 92 organization
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