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PROTOZOA Keywords.docx

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BIO2135KeywordsPROTOZOA92 A bundle of microtubules extends from the base to the tip of a organizationeukaryotic flagellum or cilium In the bundle a circle of nine double microtubules doublets surrounds a central pair of single microtublules forming the 92 complexDynein motor proteins slide the microtubules of the 92 complex over each other to produce the flagellar or ciliar movements AmmoniaNitrogenous waste formed from removing the amino group from amino acidsAmmonia is toxic and can only be tolerated in low concentrationsAnimals that use ammonia as their metabolic waste also have lots of water available to remove the toxin and a large SAV ratio for exchangeThis alters pH reacts with alphaketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle to form glutamate and disrupts the cycleAmoebozoaOne of the two unikont protist supergroups along with Opisthokonta Differ from the opisthokonts in several waysoOpisthokonts retain the flagellum during most or at least part of their life cycle while the Amoebozoa either have no flagellum or it is present only briefly in the early stages of the life cycle oIn the Amoebozoa that have a flagellum there is one centriole and the flagellum is located at the anterior end of the cell where there are tubular mitochondrial cristae Opisthokonts have a posterior flagellum with two centrioles and flattened mitochondrial cristaeThe Amoebozoa inhabit freshwater environments or soils They are categorized according into ranks that include amoeba with tubular lobopods or those with flattened pseudopods and pathogenic species such as Entamoeba The Amoebozoa also includes a group of organismsreferred to as the slime moldsthat use amoeboid locomotion to aggregate together and create fruiting bodies and spores A unique myosin molecule type II myosin appears to be a molecular symplesiomorpy for the AmoebozoaApicomplexaWith the exception of one small group the Apicomplexa are all parasitic The presence of vesicles below the cell surface in at least one stage of the life cycle identifies the organism as Alveolates Apicomplexa are for the most part immobile The microtubular organizing center of the flagella has been modified into the apical complex this consists of a variety of specialized organelles used to invade cells of their host Many Apicomplexa reproduce sexually with haploid gametes of unequal sizesyngamy oThe resulting zygote undergoes immediate meiosis and all remaining stages of the life cycle are haploid Asexual Any mode of reproduction in which a single individual gives rise to reproductionoffspring without fusion of gametes that is without genetic input from another individualResults in an exact genetic copy of the parent cellOccurs in bacteria archea protists and somatic cellsBinary fission in bacterial cells Binary fissionAsexual cell division where the parent cell divides into two daughter cells equal in size to each otherIn protists binary fission is the most common form of reproductionIn the phylum Ciliophora binary fission occurs in themicronucleusduring meiotic reproductionCentrioleIn flagellar protists centrioles are an important part of the centrosomeThey separate the chromosomes during mitosis and organize the position of cellular components inside the cell They create the 92 organization of microtubules which interact with the dynein molecular motors to create flagellar movement in both unikonts and bikontsAlthough a single centriole is part of the flagellum thats present in a few of the Amoebozoa the centriole is not involved in amoebozoan locomotion Instead an actomyosin cytoskeletal
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