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Key Words bio2135_word.doc

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University of Ottawa

Bio2135 Animal Form and Function key word listsProtozoans92 organization9 microtubule doublets surrounding 2 central single microtubules This is characteristic of the core of eukaryotic flagellumAmmoniaChemical Formula NH3 used by terrestrial organisms for nutritional requirementsAmoebozoaAn ameboid protozoa that moves by internal cytoplasmic flow They have fingerlike pseudopodia that are called LobopodiaApicomplexaProtist that contains a unique organelle called a apicoplast that is involved in penetrating the hosts cell Exclusively parasites of animalsCauses diseases including malariaProtistUsed to be subdivided into groups including the Protozoa which were the animallikePhylogeneticsevolutionary relatedness among organismsAsexual ReproductionOffspring arise from a single parent inheriting only that parents genes Does not involve meiosis ploidy reduction or fertilization Also called agametogenesis which is reproduction without the fusion of gametes Primary form of reproduction for singlecelled organismsBinary FissionDivision in half method of asexual reproduction occurs in some eukaryotes but is most common in prokaryotes After replicating its genetic material the cell divides into two equal daughter cells The daughter cells will be genetically identical Sometimes called fragmentationCiliaEukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella distinctions are made according to function and length Often serve as sensory organelles Motile cilia occur in large frequencies beat in coordinated waves Nonmotile cilia usually found one per cell and are responsible for sensory responsesCiliophoraSingle celled eukaryote that gets its name from its method of locomotion The swim with cilia short hairlike projections of the cytoplasm composed of microtubulesConjugationForm of sexual reproduction where two organisms share genetic information through a temporary unionContractile Vacuoles CVInvolved in osmoregulation used to pump excess water out of the cell In fresh water the concentration of solutes in the cell is higher than outside the cell meaning the environment is hypotonic or hypoosmotic this mechanism counters the natural influx of water through osmosisCytoproctCell anus region of a ciliate where the exhausted food vacuoles are expelled Waste ejection areaCytostomeMouthlike part of the cell responsible for phagocytosis Common in ciliates Microtubules support the structure that encloses food for storage in a vacuoleDyenin armDyenin is a motor protein that converts ATP into mechanical energy Tend to move toward the minus end of the microtubules at the center of the cell Whereas kinesin moves toward the positive end toward extremitiesEctoplasmThe outer part of the cytoplasm NongranulatedEndoplasmThe inner part of the cytoplasm Often granulatedEndosymbiont theoryArgues that mitochondria and plastids eg chloroplasts originated as free living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbiontsEuglenozoaLarge group of flagellate protozoa that can be free living or parasitic with two main subgroups The Euglenids and the Kinetoplastids Eyespot A sensory organ in flat worms or photoreceptive organelle found in flagellate cellsFlagellaMove with a whiplike motion Food vacuoleMembrane enclosed cell vacuole with a digestive function containing material taken up by phagocytosisActinA protein that forms with myosin the contractile elements of muscle cells forms microfilaments ArchaeplastidaMajor group or eukaryotes comprising of the red green algea and the land plants The plastids choloroplasts of al these are surrounded by two membranes suggesting an endosymbiotic interaction with cyanobacteriaAlveolatecomposed of 4 phyla 1Apicomplexa 2Chromerida 3Ciliates and 4Dinoflagellates The most notable shared characteristic is the presence of cortical alveoli Have mitochondriaBasal bodyan organelle formed from a centriole and a short cylindrical array of MTs found at the base of the cilium of flagellumeukaryotic undulipodiumAxonemecytoskeletal structure at the inner core of eukaryotic appendages cilia and flagella
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