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BIO2135 1st midterm and final exam keywords.docx

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University of Ottawa

stBIO2135 1 Midterm and Final Exam KeywordsPROTOZOANS92 organization Ammonia Nitrogenous waste formed from removing the amino group from amino acids Ammonia is toxic and can only be tolerated in low concentrations Animals that use ammonia as their metabolic waste also have lots of water available to remove the toxin which alters pH reacts with alphaketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle to form glutamate and disrupts the cycle Amoebozoa An order of Rhizopoda in which the pseudopodia are thick and irregular in form as in the Amba Apical complex Specialized organelles in parasitic protozoans in the phylum Apicomplexa believed to help the parasite penetrate and enter the host so that they can complete their life cycle Asexual reproduction A form of reproduction that does not involve meiosis ploidy reduction or fertilization and the offspring is a clone of the parent organismbecause of no exchange of genetic material Binary fission Cell division where the parent cell divides into two daughter cells equal in size to each other Cilia A cellular hairlike locomotory structures that consists of an extension of the plasma membrane surrounding a 92 organization of microtubules Unlike flagella cilia are shorter and more numerous on the cell surface Ciliophora A class of protozoa having cilia or hairlike appendages on part or the entire surface during some part of the life cycle Conjugation A form of sexual reproduction in ciliates Ciliophora During conjugation two ciliate protozoans join and the macronuclei disappear After meiotic divisions of the micronucleus the resulting genetic material is exchanged Cytoproct Where wastes are expelled in some protozoans cell anusCytostome In some protozoans especially ciliates phagocytosis always occurs at the same position on the cell surface When this occurs the location is referred to as the cytostome cell mouth Dyenin A protein from the microtubules of cilia and flagella which functions as an ATPsplitting enzyme and is essential to the motility of cilia and flagellaEctoplasm The outer cytoplasm of a cell or protozoan that has no organelles and is usually less fluid than the inner endoplasm Endoplasm The inner cytoplasm of a cell or protozoan with organelles usually more fluid than the outer ectoplasm Endosymbiont theory A theory that the mitochondria of eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of green plants and flagellates originated as freeliving prokaryotes that invaded primitive eukaryotic cells and become established as permanent symbionts in the cytoplasmEuglenozoa a large group of flagellate protozoa They include a variety of common freeliving species as well as a few important parasites some of which infect humans Some other euglenozoa feed through the absorption and many euglenids possess chloroplasts and so obtain energy through photosynthesis These chloroplasts are surrounded by three membranes and contain 1chlorophylls A and C along with other pigments so are probably derived from a captured green alga Eye spot Simple type of eye found in invertebrates consisting of photoreceptive cells positioned underneath a lens that can either change its shape or be positioned to focus light May be imageforming on some nautilus and spiders or it may only detect light intensities Flagella A cellular hairlike locomotory structure that consists of an extension of the plasma membrane surrounding a 92 organization of microtubules Unlike cilia flagella are longer and are usually found singly or in pairs on each cell Food vacuole A vacuole in which phagocytized food is digested Gametocyte A cell from which gametes develop by meiotic division especially a spermatocyte or an oocyteGametogony The formation or production of gametes Granuloreticulosa An extensive order of rhizopods which generally have a chambered calcareous shell formed by several united zooids Many of them have perforated walls whence the name Some species are covered with sandGuanine A purine base that is an essential constituent of both RNA and DNA Helicoid flagellar beat When the flagella beat in a helical motion think corkscrew Hyaline cap The hardened hyaline cap at the front is hit by the cytoplasm which is deflected backwards and becomes harder The hyaline cap is pushed forwards as the organism goes Lysosome A membranebound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestionMacronucleus One of two types of dimorphic nuclei found in ciliate protozoans The macronucleus contains multiple copies of the genome polyploid and is responsible for general protozoan cell function Merozoites A protozoan cell that arises from the schizogony of a parent sporozoan and may enter either the asexual or sexual phase of the life cycle Metachronal wave During the coordination of the ciliary movement bands or groups of cilia are at different stages of their beating pattern and this creates a wavelike appearance to the movement of the cilia on the surface of the organism Micronucleus One of two types of dimorphic nuclei found in ciliate protozoans The single micronucleus contains only one copy of the genome and is used during the reproductive cell divisions Microtubules Any of the proteinaceous cylindrical hollow structures that are distributed throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells providing structural support and assisting in cellular locomotion and transport Mitochondrial cristae One of the inward projections or folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion They are studded with proteins including ATP synthase and a variety of cytochromes The maximum surface for chemical reactions to occur is within the mitochondria This allows aerobic respiration to occurMultiple fission Form of cell division where a single parent cell divides and produces more than two daughter cells When only two daughter cells are produced the process is referred to as binary fission Nitrogenous wastes The waste product secreted by the kidneys that in mammals is a yellow to ambercolored slightly acid fluid discharged from the body through the urethra Oocyst A thickwalled structure in which sporozoan zygotes develop and that serves to transfer them to new hosts Pellicle The network of semirigid cell membrane thickenings found on the surface of some protozoans These are used to anchor either the locomotory flagella or cilia into the surrounding plasma membrane Phagocytosis Cellular ingestion engulfing food particles or foreign bodies by surrounding them with cytoplasm and forming a membranebound vesicle or vacuole containing the particle Phagosome A closed intracellular vesicle containing material captured by phagocytosisPinocytosis Uptake of fluid rather than particulate material by endocytosis surrounds the fluid with cytoplasm to form a vesicle or vacuole Planar flagellar beat When the flagella beat in a plane Pseudopod A cytoplasmic extension that extends from the surface of either a protozoan or any amoeboid cell These structures are temporary and are used for locomotion and feeding Radiozoa Any of various marine protozoans of the order Radiolaria having rigid siliceous skeletons and spicules Schizogony A form of asexual reproduction found in some protozoans An already multinucleated cell undergoes cell division that results in each daughter cell containing only one of the many nuclei present in the parent cell This is also referred to as multiple fission
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