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Department
Biology
Course
BIO2135
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
MesohylgelatinousmatrixwithinaspongeItfillsthespacebetweentheexternalpinacodermandtheinternalchoanodermItresemblesatypeofconnectivetissueandcontainsseveralamoeboidcellssuchasameobocytesaswellasfibrilsandskeletalelementsItiscomposedofcollagenfibronectinlikemoleculesgalectinandaminorcomponentdermatopontinThesepolypeptidesformtheextracellularmatrixwhichprovidestheplatformforspecificcelladhesionsignaltransductionandcellulargrowthMetazoawithtissuesororgansThesearemulticellularmitochondrialeukaryotesMonophyleticoriginalanimalthathastwoinnovationsofsomesortandbranchesAlldescendantsandancestorsbelonginthiscategoryOralsidesideofthespongewherethemouthisfoundOppositeofaboralsideOsculumexcretorystructureinthelivingspongealargeopeningtotheoutsidethroughthespongocoelWastesdiffuseintothewaterandexitsthroughOutgroupisamonophyleticgroupoforganismsthatservesasareferencegroupfordeterminationoftheevolutionaryrelationshipamong3ormoremonophyleticgroupsoforganismsParaphyleticagroupthatconsistsofallthedescendantsofthelastcommonancestorofthegroupsmembersminusasmallnumberofmonophyleticgroupsofdescendantsParazoawithouttruetissuesAnimalsorganizedatthecellulargradeLacktissuesevidenceofthisistheabsenceofabasementmembranceortightcelljunctionsbetweenthecellsIncludesporiferaandplacozoaParsimonyanonparametricstatisticalmethodcommonlyusedincomputationalphylogeneticsforestimatingphylogeniesThepreferredphylogenetictreeisthetreethatrequirestheleastevolutionarychangetoexplainsomeobserveddataPinacocyteflattenedcellsthatcoverthesurfaceofaspongeCollectivelytheyformthepinacodermPinacodermouterlayerofpinacocytecellsinaspongeNotatissueonlyalayerofcellsPleisiomorphiesprimitivecharacterswithinagroupAncestraltraitonitsownusuallyinreferencetoanothermorederivedtraitPolyphyleticataxonthatincludesanimalsfromtwoormoredistinctevolutionarylineagesandmaynotincludetheancestorofeitherPoriferaaphylumofanimalsthatcomprisesthespongesMulticellularorganismswhichhavebodiesfullofporesandchannelsallowingwatertocirculatethroughthemconsistingofjellylikemesohylsandwichedbetweentwothinlayersofcellsHaveunspecializedcellsthatcantransformintoothertypesDonthavenervousdisgestiveorcirculatorysystemsMostrelyonmaintainingconstantwaterflowthroughtheirbodiestoobtainfoodandoxygenandtoremovewastesPorocyteacellinanasconoidspongewithaholethroughitscentersothatwatercanenterthespongeRadialCanalanyofthenumerousminutecanalslinedwithchoanocyteswhichradiatefromtheparagastriccavityinsomespongesandendjustbelowthesurfaceofthespongeRadiallySymmetricBodywhenanorganismsbodypartsarearrangedaroundtheoralaboralaxissothatanyplanepassingthroughthisaxisresultsintwoidenticalhalvesSclerocytethetypeofcellproducingspiculesinspongesSisterGrouppairoftaxathatareclosestphylogeneticrelativesofeachother
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