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BIO2137 Final exam questions 1.docx

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University of Ottawa

BIO2137Final exam questions Part IPlant Evolution1Describe mechanisms and driving forces of speciation allopatric peripatric parapatric and sympatricAllopatric speciationisolation of populationclassic island speciation proposed by Darwin Individuals of a species migrate to an island and become isolated from their parent population natural selection then acts to modify the founder populationPeripatric speciationmuch like allopatric speciation but in this case the island doesnt have to be an oceanic island it could be a isolated mountain top or forest for exampleParapatric speciationIf a species expands its range and enters a new habitat or niche natural selection will favour local adaptation to meet the demands of this new environmentSympatric speciationwithin the same populationthis is perhaps what Darwin meant when discussing local adaptation to different environments within a species range If new variants arise which are better suited to a particular niche they will be favoured by natural selection2Define biological and phylogenetic species concept Main complication in biological species conceptBiological species conceptSpecies are populations of individuals which can interbreed with each other but cannot or do not interbreed with other groupsSpecies aregenetically isolatedComplicationsPlants often can form fertile hybridshowever these have little potential to breed in natureGeographically isolated speciescan not breed due to different locations NOT due to genetic isolationPhylogenetic species conceptPopulation that has evolve long enough to have traits that are statistically differentThis implies genetic isolation
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