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BIO1130 Complete Definition List.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO3102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
ArchaeanArchaeaOneofthethreetaxonomicdomainsoflifeconsistingofunicellularprokaryotesdistinguishedbycellwallsmadeofcertainpolysaccharidesnotfoundinbacterialoreukaryoticcellwallsplasmamembranescomposedofuniqueisoprenecontainingphospholilpidsandribosomesandRNApolymerasesimilartothoseofeukaryotestranscriptionandtranslationmachinerysimilartoeukaryotescomparewithbacteriaandeukaryotesBacteriaEubacteriaOneofthethreetaxonomicdomainsoflifeconsistingofunicellularprokaryotesdistinguishedbycellwallscomposedlargelyofpeptidoglycanplasmamembranessimilartothoseofeukaryoticcellsandribosomesandRNApolymerasethatdifferfromthoseinthearchaeansoreukaryotestranscriptionandtranslationmachinerydifferentthanineukaryotesandarchaeacomparewitharchaeaandeukaryaBioremediationtheuseofbacteriaandarchaeatodegradepollutantstofertilizeexistingseedspecificbacteriaandarchaeaCyanobacteriaAlineageorphylaofphotosyntheticbacteriaformerlyknownasbluegreenalgaeTherearemostlikelythefirstorganismstocarryoutoxygenicOproducingphotosynthesiswhichsplits2waterThisOfilledoceanandallowedothercellstouseitforcellularrespiration2AerobicReferringtoanymetabolicprocesscellororganismthatusesoxygenasanelectronacceptorThereisatheorythatlargecellsizethenmulticellularitythenlargebodycomparewithanaerobicsizemadepossiblebyavailabilityofoxygeninatmosphereandoceansAnaerobicReferringtoanymetabolicprocesscellororganismthatusesanelectronacceptorotherthanoxygensuchasnitrateorsulfatecomparewithaerobicCellularrespiration1AcommonpathwayforproductionofATPinvolving2transferofelectronsfromcompoundswithhighpotentialenergyoftenNADHandFADH3throughanelectrontransportchain2andultimately4toanelectronacceptoroftenoxygenExtremeelectronegativityofOcausesgreater2ATPproductionNitrogenfixationConvertingatmosphericnitrogenintocompoundssuchasammoniaornitratewhichcanbeusedtomakemanyorganiccompoundsOccursinonlyafewlineagesofbacteriaandarchaeaorganismsneednitrogentosynthesizeproteinsandnucleicacidsonlyamoniaornitrateareusableformostorganismsATPsynthaseFFcomplexAlargemembraneboundproteincomplexinchloroplastsmitochondria01andsomebacteriathatusestheenergyofprotonsflowingthroughittosynthesizeATPAutotrophPrimaryproducerAnyorganismthatcansynthesizereducedorganiccompoundsfromsimpleinorganicsourcessuchasCOorCHMostplantsandsomebacteriaandarchaeaareautotrophs24comparewithheterotrophHeterotrophConsumerAnyorganismthatcannotsynthesizereducedorganiccompoundsfrominorgnicsourcesandthatmustobtainthembyeatingotherorganismsSomebacteriasomearchaeaandvirtuallyallfungiandanimalsareheterotrophscomparewithautotrophBinaryfissionAformofasexualreproductioninwhichaprokaryoticcelldividestoproducetwogeneticallysimilardaughtercellsbyaprocesssimilartomitosisofeukaryoticcellschemolithotrophsLithotrophsAnorganismthatproducesATPbyoxidizinginorganicmoleculeswithhighpotentialenergysuchasammoniaormethanecomparewithchemoorganotrophsorphototrophschemoorganotrophsOrganotrophsAnorganismthatproducesATPbyoxidizingorganicmoleculeswithhighpotentialenergysuchassugarschemolithotrophsPhototrophsAnorganismthatproducesATPthroughphotosynthesisPhotosynthesisThecomplexbiologicalprocessthatconvertstheenergyinlightintochemicalenergystoredinglucoseandotherorganicmoleculesOccursinplantsalgaeandsomebacteriaFermentationAnyofseveralmetabolicpathwaysthatmakeATPbytransferringelectronsfromareducedcompoundsuchasglucosetoafinalelectronacceptorotherthanoxygenAllowsglycolysistoproceedintheabsenceofoxygenConjugationUnicellularindividualsusethisprocesstoexchangeDNAbetweenunicellularindividualsOccursinbacteriaarchaeaandsomeprotistsbasicallyaunicellularconjugalvisittoexchangethednaofloveElectrondonorAreactantthatlosesanelectronandisoxidizedinareductionoxidationreactionElectronreceptorAreactantthatgainsanelectronandisreducedinareductionoxidationreactionOistheelectronacceptorinpeopleCR2ElectrontransportchainAnysetofmembraneboundproteincomplexesandsmallersolubleelectroncarriersinvolvedinacoordinatedseriesofredoxreactionsinwhichthepotentialenergyofelectronstransferredfromreduceddonorssugarinpeopleissuccessivelydecreasedandusedtopumpprotonsfromonesideofamembranetotheotherExtremophilesAbacteriumorarchaeanthatthrivesinanextremeenvironmenthighsalthightemperaturelowtemperatureorlowpressureLKFbeargrillshabituallyeatsthemforbreakfastlunchanddinner2GramnegativeDescribingbacteriathatlookpinkwhentreatedwithagramstainThesebacteriahaveacellwallcomposedofathinlayerofpeptidoglycanwithanouterphospholipidbilayerGrampositiveDescribingbacteriathatlookpurplewhentreatedwithagramstainThesebacteriahavecellwallscomposedofanextensivelayerofpeptidoglycanPeptidoglycanAcomplexstructuralpolysaccharidefoundinbacterialcellwallsMicrobiologythestudyoforganismsthatcanbeseenonlywiththeaidofamicroscopeNucleoidInprokaryoticcellsadensecentrallylocatedregionthatcontainsDNAbutisnotsurroundedbyamembraneanucleuswithoutamembranebasicallyPlasmidInprokaryotesandsomeeukaryotesasmallusuallycircularsupercoiledDNAmoleculeindependentofthecellsmainchromosomesOxidizedThelossofelectronsfromanatomduringaredoxreactioneitherbydonationofanelectrontoanotheratomorbythesharedelectronsincovalentbondsmovingfartherfromtheatomicnucluesknownasreachinghigherenergystatefromhigherquantumstateororbitalReducedAnatomsgainofelectronsduringaredoxreactioneitherbyacceptanceofanelectronfromanotheratomorbytheelectronsincovalentbondsmovingclosertotheatomicnucleusalsoknownastheelectronmovingtoalowerquantumstateororbitalTransductionConversionofinformationfromonemodetoanotherForexampletheprocessbywhichastimulusoutsideacellisconvertedintoaresponsebythecellTransformation1IncorporationofexternalDNAintothegenomeOccursnaturallyinsomebacteriacanbeinducedinthelaboratorybycertainprocesseslikeagenegun2ConversionofanormalcelltoacancerousonelikewhatyourmicrowavedoesMainbacteriallineageschronologicalorderofdescentFirmicutes1LowGCGrampositives1100species2rodshapeorspherical3somefixnitrogennonoxygenicphotosynthesisfermentationorCR4anthraxstrepthroat5producetoxinpertinantinfarming6speeddecompositionSpirochaetes1Only62species2uniquecorckscrewshapeandunusualflagella3somehaverestingstageofspore4somefixnitrogenmostfermentation5STDsyphilis6liveonlyanaerobicconditionsActinobacteria1HighGCGrampositives1100species2rodsandfilaments3manyformchainscalledmycelia4manyheterotrophssomeparasites5over500antibioticsisolatedfrom6TuberculosisCyanobacteria1Oneofmostabundantlifeformsonearth80species2independentcellstoaggregationsorcolonies3alloxygenicphotosynthesis4sometoxictoplantsandanimals5formedoxygenforearth6makedrinkingwatersmellbadChlamydiales1Only4species2sphericalandtiny3endosymbionts4containfewenzymesofown5causeblindness6chlamydia3d
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