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BIO Key Terms 3 word.doc

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University of Ottawa

BIO1130 Key Terms 3Archaean Eon38002500 MaAerobicRequires oxygenSwitch from anaerobic to aerobic conditions at the end of Archaean Era by bacteria such as cyanobacteriaThese bacteria used light and split water molecules to create the carboncarbon bonds of glucose and produced oxygen as a metabolic wasteThose small little bacteria produced the ozone layer we have today and all the initial oxygen that set the stage for the first unicellular eukaryotesthe Kingdom ProtistaThese bacterial cells will ultimately become the plastids of the photosynthetic eukaryotesAerobic organisms require oxygen for cellular respiration which is the process of breaking down pyruvate during the Krebs cycle and making ATP by oxidative phosphorylationTakes place in the mitochondrionMuch more effective way of generating ATP than anaerobic respiration fermentationAt first oxygen was dissolved in the water and forced anaerobic prokaryotes to take refuge in the deep oceans where the toxic oxygen didnt accumulateOxygen started to appear in the atmosphere and oxidized the minerals of the earth the earth began to rustAppearance of oxidized minerals in the earths rocks identifies the end of the Archaean eon and the start of the ProterozoicOxygen accumulated in the atmosphere where it reacted to form ozoneozone filtered out the ultraviolet light that caused damaging mutations in organisms that lived close to the surface of the oceansAnaerobic No oxygenHadeon and beginning of Archaean Eons were anaerobic conditionsAnaerobes are organisms that do not require oxygen to liveoxygen is often even toxic to anaerobessome extremophiles Oxygen in our atmosphere came from metabolic waste of anaerobes when they used light and split water molecules to form carboncarbon bonds in glucoseAntibiotic resistanceBacteria that are resistant to antibioticsSuperbugsBacteria is able to survive exposure to an antibioticNatural selection amongst bacteriasurvivors have traits that they pass on through horizontal gene transfer conjugation transduction transformationWe produce artificial chemicals to attempt to control bacteria we dont kill everything and those that remain have resistant traits that they pass on Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids facilitating their transferExample TuberculosisWe now use drug cocktails to attempt 100 killMajor cause is the widespread use and misuse of antibioticsArchaeaOne of the 3 Domains of lifeProkaryotes were divided into two groupsBacteria and ArcheaInclude some of the oldest living organismsReproductive diversityhorizontal gene transferMetabolic diversityThrive best under extreme conditions eg high salts extreme temperaturesMethanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme ThermophilesMany live in anaerobic conditionsUnique lipid composition of the plasma membraneMethanogens recycle organic materiallandfill sites are being mined for their accumulated methane that is now tapped as fuelATP SynthaseA membranespanning protein enzyme complex that couples the energetically favourable transport of protons across a membrane to synthesize ATPIn animal cells it is found in the mitochondrial membraneAutotrophProducers in the food chainProduces its own foodOrganism with a metabolic process capable of building organic carbon molecules such as glucoseUses reduces atmospheric carbon dioxide gaseous formOften use water as reducing agentRelease waste as a product often in the form of O2The most complex carboncarbon bonds are built by living organismseg Phototrophs Chemoorganotrophs ChemolithotrophsBacillus bacteria Prokaryote Domain BacteriaGram positiveRod shapedCan stay dormant for extended periodsA type of bacillus causes anthraxEndospore at one endBacteria EubacteriaOne of the 2 Domains of ProkaryotesLiving Fossilsno reason to change in 25 billion years perfectly adapted and can get their energy from anything and the carbon in any formBacteria are the most metabolically diverse organismsuse all six metabolic types
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