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Mesozoic Era keywords.docx

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Mesozoic Triassic Jurassic CretaceousRecovery Continental Breakup flower power and the age of reptilesAmniote animals An animal whose embryo develops in an amnion and chorion and has an allantois a mammal bird or reptileimportant to realize that the water proof egg with nutrient reservoir wastes sac and floating embryo in aquatic environment have a distinct advantage to this groupno predators to the youngAnapsid Have no temporal arches and no spaces on the sides of the skill Turtles are living representation of this group although they actually come from the diapsid lineageAngiosperm Flowering plants which are the most successfulDefining features include carpel and fruit which help protect and disperse seedsLife cycleAs with other seed plants the large diploid sporophyte phase dominates a flowering plants life cycle and the sporophyte retains and nourishes the smaller gametophytesMeiosis produces four megaspores then all but one disintegrate It undergoes 3 rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis forming a single large cell with 8 nucleiCytokinesis produces a female gametophyte that consists of seven cells One cell becomes the egg Another large cell with two nuclei forms a nutritive tissue called endosperm The remaining cells also have brief reproductive roles but they eventually disintegrate The large central cell contains two nuclei and will produce endosperm after fertilization Pollen is released from pollen sac where microspores are producedPollination occurs Then a pollen grain develops into a pollen tube that grows towards the ovary The tube contains two sperm It is the mature male gametophyteThe pollen tube enters an ovule One sperm will fertilize the egg and one will fertilize the endospermproducing cell double fertilizationDouble fertilization produces a binucleate cell that will give rise to a triploid endosperm 3n a nutritive tissue that will nourish the developing embryoEventually a seed may germinate and grow into a seedling that in turn grows into a mature sporophyte Anther Part of the stamenEach anther contains four pollen sacs in which pollen develops Bird hipped dinosaurs One lineage of dinosaurs that proliferated in the Triassic and Jurassichad a pelvis that superficially resembled a birds pelvisSee Ornithischian Carpel Where female gametophytes form in flowering plants Contains Ovary style stigmaCartilagenous fish After the Permian extinction lots of the bony and cartilaginous fish in the oceans become extinctbut there are some who survive in fresh water bodies and then move back into the oceans
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