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BIO1130 NOV10.docx

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University of Ottawa

BIO1130 MicroevolutionSpeciationMicroevolutionWhat is microevolutionEvolutionary changes that result from changes in allele frequencies in a population or in chromosome structure or numbers due to mutation and recombinationNeed to look at variation within the populationEssentiallythe change of an allele frequency within a populationMendel shows us thatAlleles 2 in every individualAllele divisiondiploid haploid diploidHuxley gives usSynthetic theory of evolution population genetics and natural selection based on Mendelian geneticsWe can make predictions and calculations from frequencies in allelesHardyWeinberg principle2 2 p q 2pq100Assumptions of the HW principleNo natural selectionNo mutation No genetic driftpopulation is largeGene flow consistencyRandom matingEffect of SelectionSelecting against recessive genes which results in the divergence of these genesFitness of heterozygous is minimized and homozygous is dramatically reducedIn the end the final gene frequency does not equal the initial gene frequency1BIO1130 MicroevolutionSpeciationFixationIf selection pressure is mild the frequency of the genes in the population rarely changes over the generationsIf selection pressure is hard the frequency of the genes in the population shifts If we start selecting for a certain trait in organisms we end up losing variation even passed variation through generations Against recessiveNo survivors of recessive selectionWill not make a gene disappear like fixation doesIf there is a recessive gene in the population it will never be removed Variations will not change but populations will natural selection due to evolutions and allelic frequenciesSickle Cell Anemia vs MalariaGene error causing RBCs to sickle resulting in lower oxygen transport efficiencyBloodstream doesnt carry optimal oxygen loadHigh prevalence in areas where malaria is abundantAdvantage to being heterozygous for sickle celled because malaria will in a sense help the body clean out these sickle cells via liver cleansing and helps destroy themSelection with multiple loci traitsMost things are not single alleles cannot apply hw principle to themLook at the distribution of traits along a normal distribution bellshape graphDirectional SelectionIn examples of shortlongtailed birds length of tail of bird short to long and disadvantage for shorttail population will become predominantly longtailed birds and the distribution will be shifted to longertailed birds the distribution has been moved alongStabilizing Selection2
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