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Biology biologists and biosciences Key Words.docx

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University of Ottawa

Biology biologists and biosciencesAges of Sand Douglas Adams divided the Earths history into four ages each defined by a discovery of a new use of glass The first age of sand was a macroscopic view of the universe giving it various general principles laws classifications The second age of sand was a microscopic age in the sense that lenses were made to look deeper into the world Atoms and subatomic views were discovered The third age of sand was that of silicon as in silicon chips This gave the world computers and the ability to do calculations extremely efficiently and further understand how life works The fourth age of sand is that of fibreoptics communication gone wild Cell phones internet and such enable the entire world to communicate with each other instantlyAnalogy In terms of analogous structures they are structures of two different species that perform similar functions but come from different origins This can be because of adaptations to similar environments For example a whale and shark both have dorsal fins that help them swim but sharks and whales come from different ancestors Binomen Invented by Linnaeus Its a name using two parts For example the genus and species form the binomen of every organism Binomial Nomenclature The naming system of all living things This consists of the Genus and species of a particular organism For example a human is properly called Homo sapien The two words are italicized if typed or underlined if handwritten Biogeography The study of the geographic distributions of plants and animals Catastrophe theory Hypothesized by Cuvier He suggested that every era was ended by a major catastrophe in which most of Earths organisms died and were replaced by new ones Fossil beds represent mass extinctionsCell Theory Is generalized into 3 characteristics All life is composed of one or more cells the cell is the smallest unit of life and cells can only arise by the division of preexisting cells Chronological Prediction Cladogram A branching diagram in which the end points of the branches represent different species of organisms Common ancestry Two or more different organisms that share an ancestral relative For example all cats house and ferocious have a common ancestor This also means that species branch off over time but will always retain their common ancestry
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