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Rest of Hadean and Achaean Eons.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO3102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Energy sourceReducing equivalent sourceCarbon sourceNameOrganicPhotoorganoheterotrophheterotrophOrganicorganoCarbon dioxidePhotoorganoautotrophautotrophLightPhotoOrganicPhotolithoheterotrophheterotrophInorganiclithoCarbon dioxidePhotolithoautotrophautotrophOrganicChemoorganoheterotrophheterotrophOrganicorganoCarbon dioxideChemoorganoautotrophautotrophChemical compoundsChemoOrganicChemolithoheterotrophheterotrophInorganiclithoCarbon dioxideChemolithoautotrophautotrophRest of Hadean and Achaean EonsHadean EonAchaean EonProterozoic EonPhanerozoic Palaeozoic EraCambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian PeriodsMesozoic EraTriassic Jurassic and CretaceousCenozoic EraPaleogene and Neogene periodsEonsHappy Alberta Provincial PoliceErasPremenstrual cyclePaleoCanadian or Syrian dogs can playNow we start with life forms Archean Achaeans start with prokaryotes Eubacteria and Archaea and bacteria and Archaea ProkaryotesDomainsBacteria and ArchaeaMorphological Diversityhuge numbers of these organisms out there Even the total number of types that that are there Morphology was used to describe the bacteria at first when the first Microsoft was created BacilliRod CocciSpirilla Spirrilaispiral SquaresSquares There are too many bacteria for the morphological names so now they have strain names Molecular techniques are used to sequences the dna and identify the unique regions that are there SizeShapeMobilityBacterial cellsNuclear material is one large circular piece of DNA wound up on itself and condensed and in the cytoplasm No membrane holding it Cytoplasmhas ribosomes transcription and translation nuclear material no compartments and subdivisionNucleolidPiliExtensions legs and arms extending from the surface nonliving produced by the capsulePlasmidExtra addition small circular piece of DNA important for exchange of genetic material between bacteriaRibosomesCapsulea nonliving cell wall surrounding the plasma membranePlasma membraneCytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membranePeptidoglycan layerOuter membraneFlagellumlocomotory structure anchor into the plasma membrane it is important to movement and can beat in a specific way to propel the bacteriaUnspecialised cell surrounded by a casing with a motile device the type of organization arises in the very beginning of the Achaean They have remained unchanged for 38 billion years They became diversified internally not morphologically Diversity in metabolism and reproduction Bacterial cell wallsGRAM POSITIVECapsulePeptidoglycan layerSugar molecules that are cross linked with small peptides This cell wall is a meshwork of sugar molecules and peptide chains linked together in plants cellulose fungi linkage of the chains of chitin bacteria sugar and peptides Sits right outside the plasma membraneStaining procedure had bacteria that stained with the procedure they were called positive Peptidoglycan layer picked up the stains Gram negativeOuter membrane on top of Peptidoglycan layer You hit another plasma membrane after the pepti layer In the staining technique the extra outer layer of lipids prevents the stains from getting to the pepti layer Morphologically large amount of work was done to identify bacteria being gram negative and gram positive Negative is most toxic and often the ones that are going to transmit diseases They can produce toxic elements They use the outer plasma membrane to imbed toxics and poisons It enables the bacteria to be virulent FlagellumGram Neg Two regions where the flagellum is embedded into the membrane while gram positive only has the motor only embedded in one of the membranes Motorbiochemical motor to drive the motor the bacterium pumps protons into the region outside the membrane We pump protons across the membrane to create the proton gradient the motor of the flagellum is the opening for the gradient to go away As the protons fall through the op in the motor rand then proteins change in shape which causes the flagellum move Changing their shape hits it against the motor and the whole flagellum starts to spin and rotate Smallest molecular motor All bacteria use it Eukaryotes dont Bacteria reproduction Reproduces asexually The variation comes from exclusively from asexual reproduction Where does the variation come fromBinary fission Variation comes from mutation There is always a level of background mutations happening which may be advantages or deleterious or neutral They reproduce so fast and quick You divide the cell in two the genome replicates the DNA replicates anchors itself to opposite parts of the membrane and divides through binary fission If there had been a mutation we might have one new substation in one of them which may be retained and lost Conjugation If we have a plasmid present you can end up with the plasmid being moved between bacteria FReference of the fertility factor of the plasmid F has plasmid F has no plasmid F can transform F cells into F Two bacteria can fuse with each other where the Pilli are and share cytoplasm The bacteria with the plasmid send the plasmids to the other one
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