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Biology biologists and biosciences keywords Ages of sand 1 teloscope for observations far out into space 2 microscope in the mid1670s Allows us to observe the detail of the cell 3 silica based computer chip of the 1960s for computational strengths permitting the analysis of data and asking question that were previously impossible to answermathematical models of biological systems ecosystem structures even unraveling the history of organisms4 fiber optic cables allowing the transmission of huge amounts of data and information instantly around the world Allows social and p2p networking for scientists to work together on a global scaleAnalogyA similar traitsolution that appears in two or more unrelated organisms ex bats and birdsBinomial NomenclatureA two part naming system assigned to organisms based on characteristics Homo sapienBinomenthe 2 part nameBiogeographyThe study of the relationship between the distribution of organisms and their ecosystems Comte de buffon is considered the father of biogeographyCatastrophe TheoryA Theory which attributes the distinct layers of geological strata were marked by times of dramatic change in the environments that cause large mass extinctionsCell Theorytheory that believes cells are the fundamental structure Three points all living organisms are made of cellscell is the basic building unit of life all cells come from preexisting cellsChronological Predictionthe nonscientific meaning of predictionpredictions involving horoscopes and the foretelling of future eventsCladogramA branching diagram showing phylogenetic relationships Lines can be traced backed to where they branch off and these branching points are where a common ancestor is believed to have existedCommon AncestryA group of organisms that have a common descent The first living organism was Luca thus every organism is a descent of itConstancy of species theory which states that every animal was created in the same form that they presently are and that there has been no changeControlsample that tells what would be seen in the absence of the experimental manipulationConvergent EvolutionThe emergence of similar trait in unrelated species Georges Cuvier 17691832geologist who discovered bones of extinct animalsDeveloped the concept of extinction Thereby explaining fossils of non existent animalsSuggested catastrophismrapid changes to explain that each layer of fossils represented the remains of organisms that had dian in a local catastropheErasmus Darwin 17311802Translated Linnaeus work to englishBegan to see patterns in animals suggesting common ancestry expresses in a poemChallenges scala because animals arent supposed to have changedinfluence on charlesDeductiongeneral to specificknowing what is and then that will happen no matter what ex Fmathus i f equal force to 2 objects with different mass the lighter will accelerate fasterDescent With ModificationAs each generation is born certain traits are selected by the environment These traits will become more pronounced over time due to natural selection Passed down through geneticsDivergent Evolutionaccumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species usually a result of diffusion of the same species to different and isolated environments For example the vertebrate limbDomainhighest taxonomic rank of organisms contains bacteria archaebacteria and eukaryaEmpirical Observationobservations observed from experimentsEssentialismtheory that everything has an essence or perfect form once created this perfect form will never change in reference to animals all generations of animals will always be the same because the previous generation will pass on their exact essence to the next generationEukaryotescontains membranebound organelles in which specific metabolic activities take place Has a true nucleusEvolutionary tree or phylogenetic tree branching diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among organisms It is based on their phylogenetic traits and genomic traits The groups joined together in the tree are implied to have descended from a common ancestorExtinctionthe death of an entire speciesFactA hypothesis or theory which has been tested to be absolutely true in all cases Scientific facts are generally believed to be independent of the observer no matter who performs a scientific experiment all observers will agree on the outcomeFitnessHow well an organism passes on its genetics to the next generationFossil recordThe collection of all fossils and their placement in the rock strata This provides information about the history of living organisms where they lived howlong ago their appearance their lineageGerm theoryA theory which proposes that the cause of many disease are microorganisms germs versus the once believed spontaneously generated sicknessesacts of godsHistorical narrativewriting history in a storybased formHomologySimilarities in structure and anatomy but not necessarily function due to similar ancestryHomoplasySimilarities in species that are not found in their common ancestor that are the result of convergent or parallel evolutionHuxley Juliancombined darwins theory of evolution with mandels law of segregation and independant assortment to explain where variation comes fromgene frequency this also explained the mehanism behind gradual changesHypothesisAn explanation of how something works that is based on existing scientific literature or on observations of the natural world Scientific hypotheses must be testableInductionspecific to generalobserve a bunch of events and hope to find a major pattern Unlike deduction induction can be wrong ie Whenever I throw an object into the air it falls back down Thus all objects fall down This is induction because it is not always true if no force acting down in this case gravity Deduction would be more like If i throw up an objectthis objeect will keep going up unless an external
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