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Microevolution keywords.docx

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University of Ottawa

MicroevolutionAllele One or two or more forms of gene arising by mutation and occupying the same relative position homologous chromosomesDifferent alleles can result in different phenotypic traitsEach trait contains 2 alleles One allele or chromosome for diploid organisms Allele frequencies Abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population to describe genetic diversity Is calculated by dividing the number of alleles for a certain traits over the total number of individuals in the populationUsually expressed as a proportion percentageP or qOccurrence of an allele in a population to relation of all allele of that gene at the same timerepresented as a fractionAllopatric speciationdevelopmental of distinct species The development of distinct species through differentiation of populations in geographic isolation Such populations are called allopatricIsolation mechanism results from geographical separation between 2 populations Prezygotic mechanismPopulations evolved independently and siverged into different species Mainly caused by glaciers continental shifts AllopolyploidyA condition in which the genomes that contribute to a polyploidy organism are dissimilar Such an organism is generally infertile but a further doubling to produce an amphidiploid will restore fertility Common in plantsHas 2 more complete sets of chromosome from different parent speciesThis occurs only in plantsThe result is a fertile hybridThis species can be created from 2 sterile speciesbread wheat Autopolypoloidy having 2 or more complete sets of chromosomes from the same parent speciesbeing able to have 2 or more complete from the same parent speciesonly possible in plants through self fertilizationarises from meiotic processresembeles parents except they grow more slowly and flower later on in life Behavioural isolation A prezygotic premating isolating mechanism in which two allopatric species refuse to mate because of differences in courtship behavior ethological isolationThis is a prezygotic isolation process2 species wont mate because of difference in courtship behaviour Ethological isolating Ex songs of bullfrogs fireflies examples used in class sequence of bursts of light from fireflies between males and females during mating Beneficial mutation mutation that is helpful in daily life increases fitnesscan help withstand diseasesex those who carry 1 allele of the sickle cell anemia disease are more resistant to malaria in areas of subsaharan Africa Biological speciesView that the species comprises populations or groups that are isolated from each other Meaning that species should all be biospecies which often implies that these organisms cannot interbreed or that the hybrids are sterile Concept was proposed by Ernst Mayr in the 1940s exampls those species that that are not sister groups may interbreed
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