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1Microevolution going to combine what darwin and wallace told ustrying to understand variation on the planet and why things change you cant look at individuals have to look at variation within a large populationDarwins 5 theoriesano constancy of speciesbcommon ancestrycgradual changesdmultiplication of speciesenatural selection Mendel gives us heritable bases for it through the rediscovery in 1900 Law of segregation of characters and Law of independent assortment Huxley 20th century synthetic theory of evolutionpopulation genetics and natural selection based on mendelian genetics combines genetics with evolutionpredictable for changes in variationsneed to know if that variation is changed has to be measured and quantify that change Population 1All individuals of a single species that live together in the same place and timePopulation genetics 2Branch of science that studies the prevalence and variation in genes among populations of individualsMicroevolution3Evolutionary changes that result from changes in allele frequencies in a population or in chromosome structure or numbers due to mutation and recombinationstory of changes of the alleles within the population5050 to 4555shiftevolution combination of population genetics with mendel all organisms are present as alleles and everyone carries 2 alleles on homologous chromosomes Some basic terms for microevolutionAllele1One of two or more versions of a gene2Expression of an underlying gene that is physically visible3Simplest expression of a trait carry traitsPhenotype4Appearance of the trait5Visual expression of the alleles that are presentexpression of underlying genes May not tell you the allele frequency Not necessarily an expression of a genotypeGenotype6The genetic makeup of a cell organism or individual ie the specific allele makeup which determine a specific trait of an individual Homozygous7State of possessing two copies of the same allele AAHeterozygous8State of possessing two different alleles of a gene AaDominant 29Allele expressed in phenotype when more than one allele is present ARecessive 10Allele that is masked by a dominant allele aIncomplete dominancesnap dragons typical mendelian cross CCxccstandard genetic ration 121 using math and concepts of pop genetics huxley tells us how we can adapt pundt square to predict pop geneticsgenotype and allele frequencies Genotype frequency 11Percentage of individuals in a population possessing a particular genotypeto calculate ex CC450 in a population of 1000 genotypes meaning 2000 alleles so 4501000045 Cc 500 so 5001000050 cc50 so 501000005Allele Frequencies12Abundance of one allele relative to others at the same gene locus in individuals of a population13Proportion of all copies of a gene that is made up of an allele 14Number of copies of a particular allele divided by number of copies of all alleles at the genetic place locus in a populationto calculate same as above except in CC for C 2x450900 since there are 2 dominant genes and c0 in Cc for C500 c500 in cc for C0 c100 Using the HardyWeinberg principle 22p2pqq 1the sum of the frequencies of all genotypes pfrequency of C total C9005001400200007qfrequency of c total c500100600200003 2probabilityof CCpxpp2probability of ccqxqqprobably of Cc2pq the allele and genotype frequencies would not change with the following generations Hardy Weinberg PrincipleEvolutionary rule of thumb that specifies the conditions under which a population of diploid organisms achieves genetic equilibriumHardyWeinberg principles assumptions 1no natural selectionnone of the allele combinations is favourable2no mutation3no genetic driftneed to have large numbers in the pool to make sure that proportions remain the same large sample allele pool and population has to be large4gene flownew individuals migration5random mating assembling allele at randomhw eqm will tell you if the frequencies have changed and if they do there is microevolutionif we detect a change in geneallele frequency det which of these 5 is bringing about the change simple form of HW eqn just 2 alleles even though eqn simplisticbut no one understood how you could predict something was going to happen in the allelic frequency
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