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Fantastical Houseman keywordsBiologyBiologistsandBiosciencesAges of Sand Douglas Adams 19522001oFirsttelescope1608planets patterns of celestial motionoSecondmicroscope1678small organisms basic structure of lifeoThirdcomputer chip1961complex analysis communicationoFourthfibre optics1980sfast communicationBinomial Nomenclature two words to specify an organismoThe first part indicates the organisms genus pl genera which is made up of a closely related group of speciesoThe second part indicates an organisms species which is a group of organisms who regularly breed together or have characteristics distinct from other speciesoThese scientific names or Latin names are always italicised and the genus is always in capitals Homo sapiensCell Theory SchleidenSchwann1860oThe basic unit of all organisms is the celloIndividual cells have all the characteristics of lifeoAll cells come from divisions of other cellsChronological Prediction foretelling the futureFantastical Houseman keywordsLogical prediction probable explanation of what will happenCladogram The cladogram graphically represents a hypothetical evolutionary process Control it allows experiments to study one variable at a time and are a vital part of the scientific method In a controlled experiment two virtually identical experiments are conducted In one of them the treatment the factor being tested is applied In the other the control the factor being tested is not appliedDeduction Deductive reasoning is reasoning which uses deductive arguments to move from given statements premises which are assumed to be true to conclusions which must be true if the premises are trueDomain a domain also superregnum superkingdom or empire is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms higher than a kingdom According to the threedomain system of Carl Woese introduced in 1990 the Tree of Life consists of the following three domains Archaea Eubacteria and Eukaryota The arrangement of taxa reflects the fundamental evolutionary differences in the genomesEmpirical Observation A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical or empirically based that is dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses Empirical data are data that are produced by experiment or observationEssentialism essentialist view of biology that posited all species to be unchanging throughout time Some religious opponents of evolution continue to maintain this view of biologyEukaryotes Animals plants fungi and protists are eukaryotes organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures enclosed within membranes The defining membranebound structure which differentiates eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus The presence of a nucleus gives these organisms their name Many eukaryotic cells contain other membranebound organelles such as mitochondria chloroplasts and Golgi bodiesFantastical Houseman keywordsEvolutionary tree A phylogenetic tree also called an evolutionary tree is a tree showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor In a phylogenetic tree each node with descendants represents the most recent common ancestor of the descendants and the edge lengths in some trees correspond to time estimates Each node is called a taxonomic unit Internal nodes are generally called hypothetical taxonomic units HTUs as they cannot be directly observedFact is something that is true something that actually exists or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluationHistorical narrative using evidence from the past to establish patterns which can be used todayHypothesis a suggested explanation for a phenomenon an event that is observableor of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible correlation between multiple phenomenaInduction Induction or inductive reasoning sometimes called inductive logic is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument are believed to support the conclusion but do not entail it ie they do not ensure its truth Induction is a form of reasoning that makes generalizations based on individual instances It is used to ascribe properties or relations to types based on an observation instance ie on a number of observations or experiences or to formulate laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns Induction is employed for example in using specific propositions such asThis ice is cold or All ice I have ever touched was coldThis billiard ball moves when struck with a cue or Of one hundred billiard balls struck with a cue all of them movedto infer general propositions such asAll ice is coldAll billiard balls move when struck with a cue
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