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Key words.docx

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Midterm 2Archean EonAerobic using oxygenAnaerobic without oxygenAntibiotic resistance the antibiotics no longer work on the bacteria because it has made changes and adapted exchange of DNA with other bacteria to become stronger and resistant the drugs have been used too much in the pastArchaea one of 2 domains of prokaryotesATP sythetase synthase a membranespanning protein complex that couples the energetically favourable transport of protons across a membrane to the synthesis of ATPAutotroph an organism that produces its own food using CO and other simple inorganic 2compounds from its environment and energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substancesBacillus bacteriaBacteria Eubacteria one of two domains of prokaryotes collectively bacteria are the most metabolically diverse organismsBacteriophage a virus that infects bacteriaBinary fission prokaryotic cell divisionsplitting or dividing into two partsCapsule an external layer of sticky or slimy polysaccharides coating the cell wall in many prokaryotesCellular respiration how a cell creates ATP process by which energyrich molecules are broken down to produce energy in the form of ATPCellulose makes up the cell wall of plants formed by chains of carbohydrate subunitsChitin polysaccharide the contains nitrogen and is present in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of arthropodsCoccal bacteria spherical prokaryotic cellConjugation in bacteria the process by which a copy of part of the DNA of a donor cell moves through the cytoplasmic bridge into the recipient cell where genetic recombination can occur In ciliate protozoans a process of sexual reproduction in which individuals of the same species temporarily couple and exchange genetic materialElectron donor gives up an electron so that the element can have a complete outer shellElectron receptor specialized sensory receptor that detects electrical fieldsElectron transport chain stage of cellular respiration in which highenergy electrons produced from glycolysis pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle are delivered to oxygen by a sequence of electron carriersEukaryota organism in which genetic material is enclosed in a nucleusFermentation process in which electrons carried by NADH are transferred to an organic acceptor molecule rather than to the electron transfer systemFnegative and Fpostive bacteria Fneg is the recipient cell in bacterial conjugation Fpos is the donor cell in bacterial conjugationGramnegative bacteria describes bacteria that do not retain the stain used in the Gram stain procedureGramPositive bacteria describes the bacteria that retains the stain used in the Gram stain procedureHeterotroph an organism that acquires energy and nutrients by eating other organisms or their remainsNitrogen fixation a metabolic process in which certain bacteria and cyanobacteria convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia and ammonium ions forms usable by plants
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