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soroush key terms midterm 1.docx

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University of Ottawa

Lecture NotesTerm biology is only 200 yrs oldImportant Stages 400 BCE450 Greek and Roman agesRoman conquest brought species from around the world Collapse of Roman intellectual center with Gothic conquestHippocrates 460370 BCE started medicine study of human bodyAristotle 384322BCE started making inventory of animals in the world Tried organizing them in some sort of pattern Scala naturae the great chain of beingfrom simplest to most complex plantsanimalshumansgods organisms placed in a fixed position on ladder and cannot change Scala naturae refrerred to as essentialism Species dont change species not old a designer of some sortTheophrastus 371287BCE started making inventory of plants important for medicinal and nutritional purposesDecides they need to be groupedused characteristicsnatural phenomena based on reproductive structuresAcknowledged as the father of taxonomyTaxonomy The science of the classification of organisms Arranged into an ordered system that indicates natural relationshipsConstancy of speciesFundamental piece of essentialism Idea that all the species are the same as they were upon creation during Genesis and that they have not changed whatsoeverEssentialism Philosophy saying that there is a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must possess thThis was Platos ideal and was accepted until the mid19 century when it was challenged by guys such as Cuvier Lydell etcScala naturae followed this philosophyth 45016 century Medieval agesEurope400700 Early middle ages Dark agesLittle science handtomouth lifestyle no economy10001300 High middle agesBloom in agriculture commerce infrastructure Economy is booming13001500 Late middle ages1300 Disease hits from trading in Asiaflea responsible for the plague introduced for first time to Europe ie New disease hence catastrophe1500 Europe recovers exploration ensues crusadesMeanwhile as Europe suffers Islamic world prospers AlJahiz 781869 observes food chain AlDinawari 826896 takes even more plants and studied life cycles to find relationship bw seeds plant size etc Avicenna 9801037 takes Hindu Islamic and Christian Roman Greek knowledge of biology and combines themth AlBaitar d 1248 collects plants of medicinal value Compendium is so massive still used in 19 centuryth Abu alAbbas al Nabati 13 century starts to record experiments introduces control hypothesis results etcbeginning of the scientific methodSpecial creation asserts that the origin of the universe and all life in it suddenly sprang into being by unconditional fiat or divine decreethth 1618 century Renaissance and the scientific revolution start of modern sciencesScientific revolutiona period when new ideas in physics astronomy biology human anatomy chemistry and other sciences led to a rejection of previous doctrines ie Ancient Greek and Middle ages laid foundation for modern sciences
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