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Keywords- Proterozoic Eon.docx

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Proterozoic Eon Keywords92 organization organization of the microtubules that make up the flagella or cilia A circle of nine double microtubules surrounds a central pair of single microtubules Dynein motor proteins slide the microtubules of the 92 complex over each other to produce flagellar or cilliar movementAlternation of Generations a term primarily used in describing the life cycle of plantsA multicellular sporophyte which is diploid with 2N paired chromosomes ie N pairs alternates with a multicellular gametophyte which is haploid with N unpaired chromosomes A mature sporophyte produces spores by meiosis a process which results in a reduction of the number of chromosomes by a halfSpores germinate and grow into a gametophyte At maturity the gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis which does not alter the number of chromosomesTwo gametes originating from different organisms of the same species or from the same organism fuse to produce a zygote which develops into a diploid sporophyteThis cycle from sporophyte to sporophyte or equally from gametophyte to gametophyte is the way in which all land plants and many algae undergo sexual reproductionAmeboid Amoeboid Movement a crawlinglike type of movement accomplished by the overhang of cytoplasm of the cell involving the formation of pseudopodiaThis type of movement has been linked to changes in action potentialLocomotion of amoeba occurs due the solgel conversion of the cytoplasm within its cell The ectoplasm being called the plasma gel and the endoplasm the plasma sol The conversion of the endoplasm to ecto and vice versa is called solgel conversionThis type of movement is observed in amoeboids slime molds and some protozoans as well as some cells in humans such as leukocytesAntibody also known as an immunoglobulin is a large Yshaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and virusesAntibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell Antibodies can occur in two physical forms a soluble form that is secreted from the cell and a membranebound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor BCRThough the general structure of all antibodies is very similar a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures or antigen binding sites to exist This region is known as the hypervariable region Each of these variants can bind to a different target known as an antigenAntigen a substance or molecule that when introduced into the body triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system which will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invaderWas a molecule that binds specifically to an antibody but the term now also refers to any molecule or molecular fragment that can be bound by a major histocompatibility complex MHC and presented to a Tcell receptorAt the molecular level an antigen is characterized by its ability to be bound at the antigenbinding site of an antibody Note also that antibodies tend to discriminate between the specific molecular structures presented on the surface of the antigenArchea a group of singlecelled microorganismsA single individual or species from this domain is called an archaeonThey have no cell nucleus or any other membranebound organelles within their cellsIn the past they had been classed with bacteria as prokaryotes and namedarchaebacteria but this classification is regarded as outdatedIn fact the archaea have an independent evolutionary history and show many differences in their biochemistry from other forms of life and so they are now classified as a separate domain in the threedomain systemAsexual Reproduction a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent and inherit the genes of that parent only it is reproduction which does not involve meiosis ploidy reduction or fertilizationAsexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for singlecelled organisms such as the archaea bacteria and protists Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as wellTypes include binary fission budding spore formation fragmentation vegetative reproduction and agamogenesisBacteria a large domain of prokaryotic microorganismsBacteria have a wide range of shapes ranging from spheres to rods and spiralsBacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membranebound organelles
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