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Keywords for Lecture 1.docx

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Keywords for Lecture 1Ages of SandSpeech given by Douglas Adams tackling the question is there an artificial God Thought provoking way to look at period of innovation modern agesHe describes how history can be broken down into 4 ages of sand 1 telescope 1608 2 microscope 1678 3 computer chip 1961 4 fiber optics 1980s These ages of sand have contributed to the evolution of the study of biology since for example we can put GPS systems on birds to see their migration patterns computer chip and we can read genome codes and speculate changes fiber opticsAnalogyAn analogous relationship similarity between like features of 2 things on which comparison may be based Binomen Name for organism that has 2 partsDeveloped by Linnaeus he took great lists and reduced every unique organism in the list to a name with two parts a binomen Binomial NomeclatureProcess for naming an organismThe first part of the binomen is a Latin noun which represents the organisms genuus and second is an adjective which represents the organisms familyBiogeographyBranch of geography that studies the past and present distribution of worlds many species Studied by Leclerc Catastrophe TheoryEach layer of fossils represented the remains of organisms that had died in a local catastrophe eg flood Somewhat different species then recolonized the area and when another catastrophe came they formed a different set of fossils in the next higher layer Supported by CuvierCell TheoryAll living organisms are made of cells and their products New cells are created by old cells dividing into 2 Cells are the basic building units of life This theory was developed thin the 17 century Credit for this theory primarily goes to Schleiden Schwann and another scientist named Virchow Spontaneous generation finally laid to restChronological PredictionNot based on data whatsoever Horoscopes and the foretelling of future events Not used in science CladogramDiagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms in order to represent evolutionary tree of lifeLamarcks cladogram represents a linear progression whereas Darwins has a branching patternCommon ancestryOne of Darwins theories of evolution which was accepted immediately Anatomical characters with similar functional structures were assumed to have same ancestors in the pastEvidence comparative anatomy comparative embryology vestigial structures biogeography and molecules Also suggested by Leclerc As organisms move to different geographic locations they become modify to adapt to the environment around them They are descendants of the common ancestor the one that still resides in the original location of that groupConstancy of SpeciesAnother one of Darwins theories of evolution which was accepted immediately He stated that there is a nonconstancy of species meaning they change over timeThe best examples which prove this are fossils extinction transitional forms and vestigial structures
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