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BIO1130 Final Keywords.docx

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BIO1130 Midterm 2 Keywords1TermDefinitionPALEOZOIC ERACambrian and Ordivicianan animal which lacks a coelomcoelom the body cavity in metazoans located between the intestinal cavity and the body wallAcoelomatetypical acoelomate organisms include the flatworm fluke tapeworm and ribbon wormthese organisms exhibit bilateral symmetry and possess one internal space the digestive cavitya layer of usually filamentous algae on marine or fresh soft water bottomsone of the many types of microbial matsalgae and cyanobacteria form within the water column and settle to the bottom layering to form the algal matin shallow water algal mat usually is desiccated dries up and is revived again with the return of water and sunlightAlgal matsalgal mats can form in virtually any body of water including puddles sunlight initiates the process and photosynthesis soon forms a green layer of algae in the puddle the puddle can dry up and leave a thin layer of algal mat behind along with mudcracks the process can repeat at the next rainfall resulting in new layers of algal mat and mudthe layers of algal mat and mud are good preservers sediments within the mudcracks as well as raindrop impressions in the mud have been found preserved within these layers if an organism were to be caught between these layers for example a fly or more easily a snail there is a good chance that they will be preservedany cell that has properties that are similar to those of an amoebaproperties such as shape mobility amoeboid movement ability to engulf particlesAmoebocyteeg leukocytesthe central cavity within an embryo in the gastrula stage of development which eventually Archenteronbecomes the digestive cavitya type of ovoid eggshaped amoebocyte in spongescharacterized by a large nucleolate nuclei and blunt pseudopodia temporary protrusion of the Archeocytesurface of an amoeboid cell for movement and feedinggives rise to germ cellsbody plan of most spongesAsymmetric body plan left and right halves are not symmetrical to each otherbasic body plan in which the left and ride sides of an organism can be divided into Bilateral symmetry body approximate mirror images of each otherplana characteristic of animals capable of moving freely through their environmentsany marine or freshwater mollusc of the class Pelecypoda formerly Bivalviaorganisms have a laterally compressed soft body enclosed in a shell consisting of 2 hinged Bivalvevalves and gills for respirationgroup includes clams cockles oysters and musselsorganisms are bilaterally symmetrical see aboveBlastoporean opening by means of which the cavity of an animal embryo in gastrula stage interacts with the surrounding environmentin protostomatic literally meaning mouth first animals during the process of development the blastopore becomes a mouth or forms both a mouth and an anal openingin deuterostomatic meaning second mouth animals during the process of development BIO1130 Midterm 2 Keywords2TermDefinitionthe blastopore becomes either an anal opening or a nerve intestinal cavity which temporarily connects the digestive cavity with the nerve tract cavityan early form of an embryo undergoing developmental processes such as cleavagemarked by the presence of blastocoel and cells made up of around 128 cellsBlastulablastula contains a fluidfilled blastocoel surround by layers of cells that emerge from series of cleavagethe process involved in the formation of blastula is referred to as blastulationmoss animalsmajor phylum of sessile immobile aquatic invertebrates occurring in coloniesBryozoahave hardened exoskeletonsBurgess Shale had fossils containing remarkably detailed traces of softbodied marine organisms from the Cambrian period 520512 million years agoBurgess Shale fossilsBurgess Shale is one of the best preserved and most important fossil formations in the worldsince its discovery in 1909 over 60000 specimens have been retrieved from the fossil bedperiod in which marine invertebrates flourishedperiod of time during which most of the major groups of animals first appeared in the fossil Cambrianrecordssometimes referred to as the Cambrian Explosion because of the relatively short time over which the massive diversity of lifeforms appearedincludes priapulid worms burrowing wormlike marine invertebratesorganisms were able to pierce through the algal mat uncovering the nutrient reserve beneathCambrian burrowersby tapping into this new source of nutrients the burrowers were no longer inhibited by nutrients and at this point they started experimenting with new body plansdiscovery of all of the invertebrate body plans for every organism seen today and moremade the news as Evolutions Big Bang 15 years ago after the reevaluation of the body plans Cambrian explosionidentified by Walcott Quarry as arthropods in the 1930sevidence of the explosion in the Burgess ShalesCambrian swimmers animals who eat other animals as their only source of foodCarnivoresevolution of a distinct anterior region of the body the head with specialized sensory structuresCephalizationdue to bilateral symmetry and the presence of mesoderm muscle directed movement and locomotionsquids and octopodshead and foot of the mollusc is brought togetherrole of the foot changes from creeping foot to the development of tentacles and arms that Cephalopodsurround the mouthpredator at this timemoved by pumping water in and out of the mantle cavity jet propulsion cells which consist of a cell body and a set of microvilli arranged in a circle with a flagellum in the middlecreates a water current when flagellum beats that drives water between the microvilli and out of Choanocytethe cellmicrovilli trap large particles which are consumed by phagocytosis for nutrientsa colony of these cells is said to be the common ancestor to all animals common to both the animal and fungal kingdomlayer of choanocytes which constantly beats water out of the sponge and traps food by Choanodermphagocytosis see ChoanocytesChoanoflagellatecarnivores that sting entangle or poison potential prey predatorsCnidariajellyfish corals sea anemones and hydroids are members of the phylumeither solitary or form huge colonies example coral reefsCnidociltriggertriggers the release of the spring in the nematocyst
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