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Biology Final Exam Study Notes.doc

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Biology Final Exam Study NotesMicroevolutionSpecies Concepts1Biological groups of reproductively isolated individuals can only reproduce with themselves The issues with this classification are that organisms that reproduce asexually fossils and hybrids will not be considered species2Phylogenetic looks at traits and creates branching patterns Can be applies to living and dead organisms as well as all kinds of species Issues certain traits can keep branching over and over again until there is no significance to the branching 3Morphological uses morphological observations what they look like physically to categorize the organisms Issues you cant tell that some species are related by looking at them even though they are eg birds and reptiles and some traits begin to be weighted more heavily by some biologists than others4Ecological based on their habitatsStrategies for prezygotic reproductive isolation1Behavioural populations dont interbreed because they dont understand the courtships of the different species eg different types of fireflies2Mechanical the male and female reproductive organs are not compatible with one another and therefore an offspring physically cannot be formed3Temporal Species reproduce at different times of the year than others meaning they cannot breed with each other eg different types of pine trees4Gametic the sperm transfer takes place but there are proteins on the outside of the egg that only allow it to be fertilized by a sperm of its own species5Habitat Species live in different habitats far away from each other making it impossible to breed with one another Postzygotic reproductive isolation1Hybrid Sterility two diploid species reproduce to form a tetroploid species which makes it sterile and unable to produce more offspring eg mule2Hybrid Inviability two populations that were once the same have changed so much that when they reproduce together their offspring is much less fit than the two parents and as a result will not survive3Hybrid breakdown two hybrids mate and create an offspring it will not be able to surviveTypes of Speciation1Allopatric some kind of environmental factor causes population isolation either Vicariance or dispersal 2Sympatric divergence of populations within the same geographical area into different species as a result of genetic isolation Allopatric Speciation1Vicariance the physical splitting of two populations by a geographic barrier eg river mountain The produces genetic variance and when combined with genetic drift and divergence a new species could be formed 2Dispersal small percentage of a population will move to another location which could result in a new species being formed because there is such a small gene pool in a new location which requires new adaptations PolyploidyPolyploidy More than two full sets of chromosomes within a cell it is a mutationAutopolyploidy polyploidy within the same speciesAllopolyploidy polyploidy originating from two different speciesPossible outcomes from hybridizationReinforcement the hybrid offspring failsStability the offspring is one species or the other species no hybrid is createdFusion a hybrid of the two species is formedExtinction the species becomes extinctCreation a new species is formed as a result of the offspring Additional key wordsTriploid
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