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Archean key terms.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO3102
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
AerobicRespiration that uses oxygen as the final electron acceptorAllows cells to extract more energy from molecules because it is a stronger oxidising agent than metalsCharacterized by mitochondria in eukaryotic cells which require oxygen to make ATPWas make possible by phototrophs in the archean that produced oxygen as a waste product from hydrolysis which eventually accumulated in the atmosphereOzoneAerobic environment at the end of the Archean AnaerobicDo not require oxygen as the final electron acceptorMay use inorganic molecules such as nitrate or sulphate or metals as the final acceptor insteadOnly prokaryotes are capable of this type of respirationThe first bacteria were anaerobes because there was no oxygen in the early atmosphereThe anaerobes disappeared at the end of the Archean Antibiotic resistanceThe process in which bacteria become build up a defense against antibiotics drugs that have been formulated to kill themThe genes required can be passed from one bacterium to another through horizontal gene transferOften artificially selected for due to improper administration of antibiotics The more times you take antibiotics the more likely the target bacteria will build up an immunity to the drugsRender several drugs useless A huge problem for health care today unable to treat against bacterial infectionsArchaeaThe domain Archea contains prokaryote organismsArcheans have some unique molecular and biochemical traits including the unique lipid composition of the plasma membrane Bacteria that live in extreme conditions extremophiles such as extremely high or low temperatures very salty environments etcPerhaps the most ancient orgamisms on the planetGive support to the idea of PanspermiaATP sythetase synthaseA membranespanning protein complex that couples the energetically favourable transport of protons across a membrane to the synthesis of ATPFound in abundance in mitochondria and chloroplastsProtons pass through channels in the protein and provide energy to combine ADP and Pi AutotrophAn organism that produces its own food organic compounds using CO2 and other simple inorganic compounds from its environment and energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substancesThese organisms are the ultimate source of carbon in organic formAutotrophs are photosynthetic Heterotrophs obtain their carbon source from the organic carbon carboncarbon bonds that the autotrophs have stitched togetherBacteria EubacteriaUnicellular prokaryoteCollectively bacteria are the most metabolically diverse organismsReproduce by binary fission but are capable of transferring genetic material by horizontal gene transfer which along with spontaneous mutations cause genetic variation in the population
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