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113chromosomes are stable structurescould sometimes be altered by 1 breaks in DNA generated by agents such as radiation or certain chemicals2 enzymes encoded in some infecting virusesthe broken chromosome fragments may be 1 lost OR2 reattach to the same or different chromosomes resulting changes in chromosome structure may have genetic consequences if alleles are 1 eliminated2 mixed in new combination 3 duplicated4 placed in new locations by alteration in cell lines that lead to the formation of gametesgenetic changes may occur through changes in chromosome Both chromosomal alterationchanges in chromosome number can be a source of 1 disease 2disability 3 a source of variability during evolution 113achromosomal alteration after breakages occur in 4 major forms1 deletion occurs if a broken segment is lost from a chromosome2 duplication occurs if a segment is broken from 1 chromosome and inserted into its homologue3 translocation occurs if a broken segment is attached to a different nonhomologous chromosome 4 inversion occurs if a broken segment reattaches to the same chromosome from which it was lost but in reversed orientation so that the order of genes is reversed Deletion and Duplicationdeletion could cause severe problems if the missing segment contain genes that are essential for normal development or cellular functionduplication may have effects that vary from harmful to beneficial depending on the genes and alleles contained in the duplicated region some duplication are IMP sources of evolutionary changethere are some duplicated genes that have one copy that can mutate into new forms without seriously affecting the basic functions of the organism duplication sometimes arise during recombination in meiosis if crossing over occurs unequally so that a segment is deleted from one chromosome of a homologous pair and
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