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PROTEROZOIC EON192 organizationInside arrangement of microtubules consisting of globular proteins associated together to make microtubulesGroups of 9 paired microtubules on the outside then one pair on the insideoConnected to each other with dyenin arms2Alternation of generationsthe alternation of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal3Ameboid Amoeboid movementcrawlinglike type of movement accomplished by protrusion of cytoplasm of the cell involving the formation of pseudopodia The cytoplasm slides and forms a pseudopodium in front to move the cell forward This type of movement has been linked to changes in action potential the exact mechanism is still unknown This type of movement is observed in amoeboids slime molds and some protozoans as well as some cells in humans such as leukocytes Sarcomas or cancers arising from connective tissue cells are particularly adept at amoeboid movement thus leading to their high rate of metastasisLocomotion of amoeba occurs due the solgel conversion of the cytoplasm within its cell The ectoplasm being called the plasma gel and the endoplasm the plasma sol The conversion of the endoplasm to ecto and vice versa is called solgel conversion4Antibodygamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses They are typically made of basic structural unitseach with two large heavy chains and two small light chainsto form for examplemonomers with one unit dimers with two units or pentamers with five units Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a plasma cell There are several different types of antibody heavy chains and several different kinds of antibodies which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals which perform different roles and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounterany of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes thus producing an immune responseA substance formed by the body cells that guard against invading organisms or substances5AntigenAn antigen is a molecule recognized by the immune system Originally the term came from antibody generator and was a molecule that binds specifically to an antibody Autoimmune disorders arise from the immune system reacting to its own antigensAny substance as a toxin or enzyme that stimulates an immune response in the body especially the production of antibodies6Archea
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