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Lecture 6 - EXAM VERSION.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO3153
Professor
Michael Jonz
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 6EXAM VERSIONNovember21121250 PM APOPTOSISApoptosisProgrammed cell deathControls number of cells total cell massDiffers from necrosis trauma or cytotoxicity leading to decrease in production and storage of ATP reduction of control of ATPases followed by lysis death by other pathways Way of removing to have little impact on surrounding tissue and cellsWhyBalance of cell division with death in adult tissues if not tissue would grow or shrinkWe make more cells that needed to make sure that appropriate connections can be made insuranceFigure mouse paw in frogs Apoptosis in developmentcells undergoing apoptosis webbed hands loss of cells between digits pronounced fingers General CharacteristicsFor apoptosis to occur cell must undergo significant biochemical and morphological changeInitiation by intracellular or extracellular signalActivation of a series of proteins involved in promoting apoptosis or inhibition of those that prevent itImportant intracellular proteins necessary for survival are cleaved during apoptosisOrderly disposal of dead cell Structural Changes during ApoptosisChromatin condenses shrinkage of cytoplasm1Nucleus fragmented1DNA ladderingBlebbing bulge of plasma membrane containing materialCell fragmentationApoptic body engulfed by phagocyte gets rid of bits and pieces of cell1loss of adhesion PhagocytosisAsymmetric distribution of plasma membrane is lost because of apoptosisNegatively charged phophatidylserine becomes exposed outside cellCell marked for phagocytosis by macrophage CaspasesProteases that cleave essential proteinsInvolved in most changes observed during cell death
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