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Sociology 1101H Principles of SociologyLecture 1 Introduction Definition The systematic study of human society and social interactionSociologists study human societies and their social interactions in order to develop theories of how behavior is shaped by group life and how on the other hand group life is affected by individualsThe sociological imaginationOriginated by Sociologist C Wright MillsDefined asthe ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger societyStudying SociologyGoal is to be as value free as possibleThe sociologist attempts to discover patterns or commonalities in human behaviorHe she searches for multiple causes and effects of social issues like suicide homelessness family violence poverty discrimination and analyses social patterns in gender race kinship marriage and other areasLecture 2 the beginnings of SociologyThe development of sociological thinkingClassic origins go back to Ionic beginnings Aristotle and Plato for example However earlier thinkers stated what they thought society ought to be like rather than describing what society actually was ththThe growth of the natural sciences in the 1718 centuries triggered process of applying scientific principles to the analysis of society and this happened more intensively after the Industrial RevolutionsHistory of sociologyAdam Ferguson considered theanother father of sociology17231816Humans are here to perfect gods planSociety must progress through military might and civil strengthFree government but laws and orderEarly thinkers a concern with social order and stabilityAuguste Comte 17981857Popularized the term sociology and considered the founderHe believed that societies contained Social staticsforces for social order and stabilitySocial dynamicsforces for conflict and changeNatural science applied to societyPositivismHarriet Martineau 18021876Made Comtes work more accessibleAnalyzed political economy reviewed current worksShe was an active sociologist studying social customs and consequences of industrialism and capitalismShe examined religion politics childrearing slavery immigration in categories of race class and genderKarl Marx 18181883Believed that history is a continuous clash between conflicting ideas Conflictespecially class conflict was necessary in order to produce social change and a better society Class conflict The struggle between capitalist class and the working class Bourgeoisie Comprises those who own and control the means of production capitalist class Means of production Refer to the tools land factories and money for investment that form the economic basis of a society Proletariat Comprises those who must sell their labor because they no other means of livelihood working class Capitalist system made povertyCapitalist class controls and exploits the masses of struggling workers by paying them less than the value of their laborThe results in workers Alienation A feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneselfMarx predicted that the workers would become aware of its exploitation and overthrow the capitalists creating a free and classless societyHerbert Spencer 18201903
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