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Midterm

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Department
Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course
BPS1101
Professor
Tony Durst
Semester
Fall

Description
LECTURE 1 1. What are NHPs and how are they regulated?  NHPs are natural health products.  They are secondary metabolites that have some sort of active ingredient to them that provide a health benefit.  They include substances such as herbs, minerals, fish oils, vitamins, essential fatty acids, plant, homeopathic, microorganisms, and animal derived products.  Natural health products are not standardized drugs, and are regulated by the Natural Health Product Directorate (NHPD) Europe regulated as drugs Canada separate from drugs, regulated as NHPs Australia separate from drugs, regulated as Complementary and Alternative medicines US allowed to make medicinal claims, regulated as “dietary supplements Asia drugs, traditional Chinese medicines.  In Canada: NHPs are OTC. Legalized if they are safe and of good quality, traditional evidence of use for 50 years, or if scientific evidence of efficacy is supplied. (PASSED IN 2004 BY MINISTER OF HEALTH - ALLAN ROCK)  In Canada NHPs are not regularly checked for safety, but the substance is quickly withdrawn from the market if there is any report of it being unsafe.  To be able to sell a NHP, you must apply for a license which gives you an NPN# or DIN-HP# for homeopathy. 2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian system?  The main strengths: recognizes different cultures’ practices, allows indigenous people to practise their rituals.  Main weaknesses: products are not very well regulated for safety, there is a lack of standardization, some products make medicinal claims that might not live up to their expectations. 3. What is the market for NHPs?  Used mainly for: sports, energy, weight loss, general health, cold/flu-immune, join health, anti-cancer Cold/Flu Vitamin C, multivitamins Heart Health Fish oils, Garlic Gastrointestinal Digestive enzymes, probiotics Brain/Mental Condtion Ginkgo, fish oils Anti-cancer Multivitamins, noni juice Menopause Calcium 4. Who uses NHPs and why? → Mainly people with high level of education → People with high salaries → Women → People over the age of 40 → West of Canada Reasons for use: better than chemical drugs, concerned about overall health, maintain/promote health 5. What are Nutraceuticals/medicinal foods?  Functional foods – foods that have high components of medicinal benefit  Nutraceuticals – any product derived from foods containing substances with health benefits  Health Canada is trying to discourage NHP delivery in food format because it makes it readily available for people that maybe should not be taking that supplement. 6. What is Flax and what is it used for?  Flax is a nutraceutical crop (flax seeds)  Used to prevent breast, colon, and prostate cancer  Modulates sex hormone metabolism, and cell proliferation  The main lignan in flax is SDG, which is metabolized by Enterdiol (formed in vivo) 7. What are the savings with functional foods for cancer?  $2.4 billion/year 8. What is Golden rice used for?  Golden rice can be genetically modified to have vitamin A (beta carotene) in it. This vitamin is beneficial for helping maintain eyesight, which is very useful for people in developing countries.  Getting this approved takes a lot of time because it is genetically modified. 9. What are some controversial substances?  Redbull – high content of caffeine to remain alert, but it is advertized as a party drink so if you mix it with alcohol you can die  Noni juice – highly advertized to cure every possible disease, but in reality it is not so effective.  Nicotine drinks – help quit smoking, but you are still addicted to nicotine LECTURE 2 1. What is the origin of botanical medicines, ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology? Differentiate between each.  Ethnobotany – how people use plants for medicine, technology, food, spirituality.  Ethnopharmacology – the study of biological activity and phytochemistry of traditionally used plants  The origin of botanical medicine stems from tribe healers, who use plants for medicinal purposes.  WHO now integrates traditional medicine and modern medicine. 2. What is the traditional and modern medicine systems using botanical medicines? Traditional Important Plants Modern Medicine Indigenous  American Ginseng – lowers blood Healers can remember sugar 800-1000 species of plants through  Echinacea – boosts immune system specialists. Today we to ward of infections use their medicinal  Muskrat root – cold/flu remedy, clear plants to develop our own drugs our sinuses  Ayahuasca – hallucinogen for ritual healing.  Cat’s claw – treats mild arthritis (active principle: mitraphylline) Asian  Ayurveda Today TCM is a fully regulated profession in  Traditional Chinese Medicine BC, ONT, NFLD with accredited doctors  Kampo European  Naturopathy – natural products Naturopathy=NHPs where the more you use the Homeopathy = Canada greater the effect has no problem  Homeopathy – highly dilute plant approving it because extracts the substance is so dilute it has little effect. N. America  Complementary&alternative Herbal products were medicine – acupuncture, TCM, delisted as drugs homeopathy, chelation therapy, naturopathy, aromatherapy 3. How did antimalarial drugs evolve?  Medicinal bark, quina quina, which miraculously cured malaria for Countess Cinchon  Quality issues led to adoption of Jesuit bark (most widely traded form of quina quina)  1900s- isolated quinine more effective than bark  1940s – semisynthetic chloroquine (became resistant)  1990s-mefloquine developed to overcome resistance (strong psychological effects)  2000s- artemisinin was developed and is 1000 times more effective than quinine. 4. Ayahuasca  Hallucinogen for spiritual healing  2 botanical components: “Caapi” and “Yage”  DMT in Yage binds to the 5-HT receptor to activate the hallucinogen. Harmine found in Caapi inhibits the MOA enzyme, which destroys DMT in the stomach allowing for oral uptake of the drug.  The hallucinogen distorts perception of time and space = perception of flight. In reality, you are throwing up the entire time (3 days)  Ayahuasca in modern practise was found to have the ability to cure addictions. 5. What is the origin and nature of natural products found in botanical medicines?  Natural products come from organisms that are low in the food chain which are unable to move or defend themselves physically so they make substances that can defend them instead.  Arm’s race – plant develops a new drug and the bug eating the plant eventually becomes resistant to the drug so the plant has to make a new drug again.  Primary metabolite – substances like ChI – same in all organisms  Secondary metabolite (phytochemicals) – no basic physiological role in host, different in each species Major Secondary Derived from How they Look Metabolites Phenolics Phenylalanine Alkaloids Amino acids Terpenoids Mevalonate Minor Secondary Metabolites Acetylene Fatty Acids Amides Non-protein amino acids Amino Acids Cyanogens, Glucoscinolate LECTURE 3 1. Explain the process of manufacturing herbal natural products.  The crop is harvested  Root washing: done to get rid of contamination  Drying: the herbal product has to be dried to preserve its active ingredients. If it is not dried, it must go straight to extraction. Heat (IR) is used to dry berries. Drying must occur at low temperatures because high temperatures denature the active ingredient. Industrial spray drier is used for water-based extracts (prone to oxidation, but cheap)  Milling: dry material is cut.  Packaging: the herbal material is stored in bulk to prevent oxidation, which eliminates the active ingredient.  Extraction - Alcohol extraction (used without drying) – alcohol extract is consumed directly, so the alcohol has to be removed by evaporation.  Preparation of dosage: softgel capsules are prepared with liquid inside because they are easy to swallow.  Material is packaged, locenges inspected.  QUALITY: - Fungi/mold <10^4 - Aerobic bacteria<10^5 - Ecoli – abscent - Heavy metals < tolerance - Pesticides
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