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Drugs notes.docx

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Biopharmaceutical sciences
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PART 3 BPS 1101 Exam Drugs in the BodyDrugs pass many barriers entering the body Each barrier removes some of the drugMost drugs pass through the digestive system The stomach is the first barrier the drug must survive acid Most drugs absorbed by small intestine the drug must dissolve in waterDrug must survive digestive enzymesDrugs pass through intestinal cells Molecules pass through membranesFrom the outside cell water to the inside cell waterThe cell membrane acts as an oilLiver removes poisons from foodAcetaminophenuses Glucuronyl transferase to remove poisons from the bodyDrugs pass many barriers to reach target organ Stomach IntestineMembraneLiverTherefore to find a cure is much easier than getting the drug where it needs to goDrugs interact with biological molecules All drugs have to stick to some biological material in your body molecules dont stick at a low concentration but a high concentration to provoke an effect There is a minimum dose to make drugs stickie If the effective dose is 25 mg the Administered dose 300 mg They base their dosage on how much they know can get throughSide effects are undesired effectsDrug goes everywhere in bodyUndesired effectsharmful or beneficial reflex responseCan arise in many waysYou must balance the riskbenefit ie Cancer medicationside effect is deathReflex Vaccines may cause fever Simulated infection is a beneficial effect the drug is working correctly in the wrong location stimulating something elseAspirin can cause stomach irritation Prostaglandin inhibitionIn muscles gives pain reliefIn stomach gives irritationSometimes drug interacts with the wrong biological moleculeex Diphenhydramine causes drowsinessCapsaicin used for topical pain relieffound in chili peppersTaste is also a biological response flavour moleculesScoville scale ranks hotnessPure Capsaicin is highest dangerous extreme reaction to the powder requires protective equipmentGhost peppers 1 million tearing runny nose emesis vomiting ring of fire Chipotle Morita 5000flushing sweating increasing blood flow to coolPulla Peppers 700warm sensationSweet bells is lowest 0dose is low drug has no effectCapsaicin does not dissolve in water or in coldIt dissolves in your tissuesAntidote must be high in fat Capsaicin dissolves in fatInitial safety testing at PanlabsAll done robotically test anything in plate test tube petree dishPanlabs a company in the PhilippinesDetermines level as risk anything at high risk is immediately stoppedSafety testing done in small animals 30 million rodent a year 200 dogsyr primates 50 000 yrexpensive so they try to reuse ex Insulin originally isolated from dogsSurgical procedures developed on animalsAnimal rights movement oppose testing it is necessary many things need to be tested in mammals the complexity of a living animal cannot be simulatedex Sulfanilamide tragedy result of no testing Thalidomide effects result of limited testing only done in ratsteratogen Protest movement Although not ideal they find animal testing necessaryAll animal testing subject to ethical reviewExperiment must have a reasona discoveryExperiment must be ethicalMust follow a set of rules and regulationsPills contain more than the drug ExcipientsFillers to measure doses from pill to pill consists of things that are in your diet anywayStabilizers protect drugs from oxygen increases shelf lifePreservatives protect drugs from microbes moldBinders Absorption enhancers FlavoursColours safety feature standardizedFood additives are usedClinical trials Most drug development spent here 90 failure rate Testing for safety and efficacy in humans Phase 1 trials 100 healthy volunteersex TGN 1412anaphylaxis administered 12 at the same time comas Phase II trials for safety efficacy dosing100 to 300 patients who could use the drug Phase III trials for rare side effects 1000s of patientsDouble blind used patientsdoctors do not know if it is drug or placeboNuremberg code for research on humans Informed consent Prior animal studies Benefits outweigh risks
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