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Biopharmaceutical sciences
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PART 3 BPS 1101 Exam AllergyAdverse reaction to harmless materialAllergy requires prior exposureImmune system responds to somethingEpitopes of molecules from pathogensImmune system remembers that materialMemory cells giving a strong response to the next encounter Subsequent exposure produces reactionProtection from pathogensAllergy to harmless materialHay fever is a reaction to pollenColdlike symptomsSome people get a geographic tongue Was rare and now is the most common allergyAtopic dermatitis rashes from surface exposureContact dermatitis from irritantsHand washing makes it worseCommon with industrial powders with exposure to large amounts dose vs poisonSandcarcinogen when breathed in Contact dermatitis from immune reaction ex Poison ivyOHHype immune reactions at the site of contact OHUrushiol produces the reaction Latex from rubber tree sapNickel is a common allergen gives the strongest immune responseNickel alloys are commonMany piercings made of stainless steel NickelAllergies to henna tattoos on skinDust allergies are common and are caused by dust mites fecesMattresses can contain large amounts of droppingsAllergies to pets mostly due to their salivaMold and fungi produce many allergies and are the most dangerousFood can give allergy or intoleranceAllergyImmune system reacts to the foodIntolerance Substances in food produce adverse reaction ex HEADACHESFood allergies affect about 4of adultsFood intolerance affects about 30of adultsLactose intolerance is inability to digest lactoseBacteria digest food insteadLactase is available as a supplementSpices can irritate stomach NOT allergySigns of food allergy bags under eyesdark under eyes from constant inflammation Common food allergensSeafood fish milk eggs nutsPeanut allergy common in North America RARE outsideWe roast our peanutsPeanut free schools common only in last 30 years in North AmericaSpider and insect bites can give strong reactionsRare allergies allergy to sunlightactivates marigold in skinAquagenic allergyallergy to water rash even if we are water 60th20 Century diseaseallergy to manmade substancesPsychological usually people who had a traumatic event or have anxietyGet rash runny nose etcAllergy is a disease of the developed worldRates have doubled since 1980exposed to new substancesIndustrial pollution more common in developing worldMost allergies involve natural substances to manmade is very rareHygiene hypothesis for allergyMore clean and so less exposed than beforeImmunization and antibiotics reduce infection rates causing more allergy but less illnessChildren in daycare less likely to be allergic exposedChildren in large families have less allergies exposedLess if child plays in dirt more if too cleanEast Berlin had poor health care and pollution More allergies in West BerlinAllergy requires prior exposureInvolves immune system memorystHypersensitivity on 1 exposureUnknown previous exposureMast cells display IgE antibodies1 Allergin contacts the IgE molecules2Mast cell degranulation releases histamine3 Histamine produces allergy symptomsManaging allergyAvoidanceAntihistaminesDecongestantsImmune modulatorsImmunotherapyAllergy tests look for reactionsONAvoidance best for food allergyDifficulty may be finding out what to avoidProcessed foods contain variable ingredientsNeed to track down food allergy using logbook First generation antihistamines can enter the brain Antihistamines are often takenDiphenhydramine Benadrylhistamine antagonistsClGeneric versions are availableMakes you sleepyNChlorpheniramine is in ChlorTripolon NSide effect is drowsinessin cold medicationsRare in americaClSecond generation antihistaminedoes not enter the brainNLoratadine is a prodrug ClaritinBody converts Loratadine to DesloratadineNDesloratidine is in AeriusOOSeldane contained terfenadine which was converted to fexofenadineFIRST nondrowsy treatment Ketoconazole inhibited the liver causing the activation of terfenadine toxic This caused cardiac arythmiaOHThird generation antihistamineAllegra contains fexofenadineOHNReactine contains cetirizineOVarious generations of antihistaminesOHFirst generation drowsinesscetirizineDiphenhydramine 1940s Benadryl generic availableChlorpheniramine 1940s ChlorTripolon generic availableSecond generation nondrowsyLoratadine 1989 Claritin generic availableDesloratadine 2002 Aerius generic availableThird generation nondrowsyFexofenadine 1996 Allegra generic availableCetirizine 1996 Reactine generic availableBuyer beware Price for 100 tabletsGeneric can be more expensive puts less tablets to look cheaperBuying in bulk is best valuePseudoephedrine for decongestion Steroid decongestants are for structure not anabolicRhinocort sprayPulmicort is an antiinflammatory steroidAnaphylaxis is very seriousBody protects itself by swelling causing the airway to closeEpiPen for strong allergic reactions
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