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Drugs 101.docx

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Department
Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course
BPS1101
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Drugs 101 Midterm 2Cancer Cancer is an uncontrolled growth The growth in our body is usually tightly regulated and controlled but when it goes out of control it is referred to as cancer In CANADA cancer is the MAIN cause of death In the states it is responsible forof the total deaths Cancer is a disease of the aged since it takes a long time to develop so death generally occurs after the age of 55 Cancer in children is extremely rare Cancer requires 8 to 10 mutations in the same cell5 year survival rate for cancerHyper Proliferative Lesion Benign It grows at a relatively slow rate A wart is an example it is not a type of cancer but it is still a growth In some parts of the world they can be life threatening due to the wart getting too big and preventing normal functions of the body Usually only causes of death in poor countries where there is no access to medical careHyper proliferative lesion Malignant The growth is completely out of control and the situation leads to interference with the normal functions It consumes too many things in the body and it is mobile Treatment The treatment is unpleasant people claim that it is worse than the disease The treatment guarantees damage toward the patient There has not been a dramatic change in the death caused by cancer since 1950 Cancer treatment has progressed but is still not very effective but the major cause for the static levels of death in cancer is the increase in the rate of cancer because of lifestyles Women are smarter than men which is why the levels of cancer are higher in menCancer in Men Lung cancer is the largest cause of cancer and men and has recently been decreasing Other forms such as prostate colorectal and stomach have gone down Lung cancer is what makes the difference between men and womenCancer in Women Lung cancer death rates have doubled in the past 25 years Breast cancer death rates have remained unchanged Colectoral stomach and uterine cancer have been decreasing over the past 50 years Cancer cells Cancer cells occur when the body has a defect in it Normal cells mutate into cancer cells and keep replicating without the STOP function This creates uncontrolled growth that destroys the functions of your body Acts like a parasite that consumes your body make your own parasite The cell can divide over 50 times immortal The cells are also mobile metastisis this is dangerous because they can move throughout the body and take over systems Normal Cells Normal cell growth is tightly regulated the cells only divide on command The cell can only perform a maximum of 50 cell divisions before it dies There is a built in clock that counts the number of times a cell divides and when it has reached its limit of around 50 more for white less for nerve the cell destroys itself Cells must always be touching similar cells they will die if they are not linked to similar cells HeLa cells Cells form Henrietta Lacks these cells were cancer cells that could be grown in a lab The cells grew really quickly and were the most popular human cell line to choose They are still alive and available todayCascading Chemical reaction Consists of stimulation and repression Complex system Cancermutations create loss of function and a breakdown in the cascading process Usually the off switch in the reaction is broken P53 Important braking protein Important protein in apoptosis suicideApoptosis Programmed cell death Occurs after embryo development in wound healing and to protect the body from viruses and cancer Tumor Formation Requires 810 mutations of the same cell Mutations happen continuously and damaged cells are eliminated from the body Accumulation of enough mutations to acquire cancer requires more than 20 years on averageChormosomes Tips are like shoe laces they become frayed with age Genes They are a set of instructions to make proteins using 3 letter words called codons Each codon specifies an amino acid in a protein The sequence of amino acids determines protein structure Mutation Typo in the gene coding for the wrong amino acid creating a defective protein Oncogenes Determine your genetic susceptibility to cancer Tabacco Controllable cause of cancer Tobacco smoke contains over 4800 chemicals 400 toxic chemicals and 40 carcinogenic chemicals Nicotine is the addictive substance Polonium210 is a carcinogen in cigarettes It is a radioactive element that comes from the ocean Alpha emitters are safe when they are on the outside of your body Alpha radiation on the inside of your body is lethal The exposure to radiation causes a mutation Incomplete combustion generates dangerous materials Benzopyrene Carcinogenicity Phase 1 and phase 2 metabolism works to remove the chemical from the body safely After phase 1 occurs the chemical is turned into a highly dangerous and radioactive substance that can react with DNA and alter its structure Tobacco Companies Realized they were only selling to men so they began targeting women Diet Strong correlation of cancer with diet and obesity Cooking generates bad materials from incomplete combustion The same substances that generate flavor are dangerous Frying and barbecuing is the most dangerous way to cook food Fruits and vegetables protect us because they stimulate the production of phase 2 enzymes Fiber is good for you because it promotes the passage of waste carcinogens stick to fiber as well Obesity Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US Obesity increases you risk with everything because your body is not designed to be that big Heart lung and liverPre
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