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Drugs 101 Midterm 1 Notes.docx

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Biopharmaceutical sciences
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DRUGS 101 MIDTERM 1 NOTES HistoryWe are living in a time and place where you will have the maximum life expectancy for a human beingthCanada has the 8 highest life expectancy worldwideAbout 82 years oldSwaziland life expectancy is lower than the life expectancy of the stone age 32Throughout most of recorded history you could expect to live to be about 3035 years old Improvements in the last 150 years have drastically increased life expectancy connecting scientific principles to human health experiments to determine why people die and get sickIn 1900 everyone was sick all of the timeLife expectancy was 44 years Main causes of death were diseaseoPneumonia tuberculosisinfluenzaThis lasted until the 1950sIn 2004 life expectancy was 82 yearsStatistically you wont die from disease your body will wear outoHeart disease cancer stroke lower respiratory infection traffic accidents diabetesAilments Throughout HistoryProblemDescriptionDiseaseAffects the quality of life 150 years ago disease was a constant qualityLice and fleas were very commonMost people would have worms and parasitesChronic InfectionFungal infection was with people all of the timeToday you get an infection go to the doctor get treatmentMalnutritionFood spoilage was very commonEverything was rotten and eating spoiled food could not be avoidedMain Reasons for Improved HealthReasonDescriptionImproved sanitationi ToiletOnly exists in the developed world for the past 100 yearsOuthouses used to be common in cities human waste is a source for diseaseChamber pots and communal cesspitssitting next to your bed pot emptied out of the windowii Living in close proximityCreates unhealthy situations 100 years agoiii Exposure to dead bodiesDead people were a source of disease people died at home and had to be carried outClean drinking waterContributes to overall healthinessWater supply we have in Canada is extremely safe and an important part of our health In history villages didnt have clean water nature doesnt make clean water and villages upstream would polluteAnimals living in water such as water fleas and guinea worms can live inside your bodyFiltering water through a cheese cloth filters water fleasBoiling water also prevents disease There was no way of knowing if microscopic organisms were living in the waterChlorination sterilizes water by killing bacteriaRefrigerationMost people would eat spoiled foodUsing an ice house extended the life of the food but it still rotted quicklyIce houses were only reliable in the northern climate ice was harvested in the spring and would melt usually by summerToday you can get food that you want all the timeFood is well preserved Example you can obtain strawberries in the winterVaccinationVery successful for viral diseasesExample small pox eliminated in 1977Smallpox disfigured people who survived itsmallpox vaccine scar in people born prior to 1972Example Polio was eradicated from North America in 1991 currently less than 1000 cases worldwide in 1011 countriesThe major problem preventing worldwide elimination of disease is politicsAntibioticsUsed for bacterial infection50 years ago preantibiotic infection was a major concern you could die from a little cut on your armPenicillin significantly reduces maternal mortality before the advent of penicillin in around 1940 a mother had a 30 survival rate if she contracted an infection during childbirth North American Drug Market 2009There is a very large industry in North America for pharmaceuticals World Drug MarketsUnited States491Germany77France71United 42KingdomCanada38
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