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Last section after Midterm #2 This is a review of the remaining classes after the second midterm in 2010. It covers eukaryotic genomes (intergenic DNA and on) to pharmacogenomics (the whole lecture).

6 Pages

Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course Code
Linda Bonen

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GENOMIC MIDTERM FOR PART III OF COURSE IMPORTANT CONCEPTSEukaryotic Genomes Part IIIntergenic NonGenic DNAUnique nonrepetitive sequencesTandemly repeated sequences centromeres telomeres spacers etc Microsatellites 5 bp clusters usually 150 bp also known as SSRsimple sequence repeatThey can occur within genes and may be detrimental ex Huntingtons Disease Minisatellites25 bp clusters up to 20 kbDNA with biased base composition migrates as satellite bands on buoyant density gradientsInterspersed repeats LINES SINES etcWhere are genes located within nuclear genomesMost genes are in nonrepetitive DNA regions but lowtomid repetitive DNA fraction includes multigene families in tandem arrays eg rRNA genes globin genes dispersed ex actin genes on different chromosomesVariation in genome size among organisms usually as organisms increase in complexity they have more DNA C value paradox in certain cases lack of correlation between morphological complexity and genome size repetitive DNA content varies among eukaryotessimpler organisms typically have smaller genomes and less nongenic repetitive DNA than more complexorganisms but sometimes morphologically similar organisms differ greatly in amounts of nongenicrepetitive DNA and genome size ex Arabidopsis has small genome with little complexity but rye has90 repetitive DNAnumbers and length of introns vary among eukaryotes contributes to differences in genome size syntenyconserved gene order among organismsex regions of synteny between human andmouse genomes similar stretches of DNASOME EARLY SURPRISES FROM GENOME ANALYSIS 1Closely related organisms can have very different genome sizes and gene densities 2High and variable amounts of dispersed repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes 3Number of genes identified in human genome lower than expected 4Plants and humans have rather similar estimated number of genesBUT Arabidopsis has many redundant multigene families Also human gene set may be considerably smaller than its protein setbecause of alternative splicing
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