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CHEMISTRY 1311-Lecture 1.docx

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CHEMISTRY 1311 Darrin RichesonWhat in the world isnt ChemistryMatter is the physical material of the universeOn the microscopic level matter consists of atoms and moleculesAs we know molecules may consist of the same type of atoms or different types of atomsWe encounter chemistry in our everyday livesConservation of MatterA chemicalequation must be balanced for mass Lavoisier17431794Atomic TheoryA chemicalequation must have the same number of atoms of the same kind on both sides Dalton 17661844Law of Mass Conservation The total mass of substances present does not change during a chemical reactionDaltons Atomic TheoryAll matter is made of small indestructible particles called atoms One kind of atom cannot be converted into another kindAll atoms of a given element are identical and atoms differ for different elementsCompounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combineAtoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios eg 11 as in ABor 12 as in AB2What are AtomsAtoms are the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combinationDaltonAtoms are small and indivisiblenot quiteAtomic StructureJJ Thompsons Experiment 189819038Zm of the electron17610 Cg ObservationConclusionRay bends in magnetic fieldRay consists of charged particlesRay bends toward positive plate in electric Ray consists of negative particlesfieldRay is identical for any cathodeThese particles are found in ALL matterMillikens Oil Drop Experiment 190919charge of the electron16022 x 10 CThereforemass electrone chargee chargetomass ratio28 28910 x 10g 91093910 g Nuclear Model of the Atom Rutherford 1910 The Modern View of Atomic StructureNucleusnucleus contains protons and neutrons
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