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CHM1321 Midterm 1 Notes.docx

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Greg Flynn

Two major divisions of chemistry Organic contains carbonInorganicGreater than 60 of all known compounds are based in carbon organic compounds are the basis of lifeCarbon is a unique element in that it easily bonds with itself into carbon chains No other known element is capable of forming these changes This enables complex 3D structures All organics contain carbon most all organic molecules contain hydrogen there are a few exceptionsMost organic molecules will also contain heteroatomsheteroatomsanything not carbon or hydrogenHeteroatoms that are importantYou must remember all of theseoOxygenoNitrogenoFluorine FoCloBroI oSioPoSoBBCNOFSiPSClBrIElectronegativity ReviewElectronegativity increases from left to right and from bottom to topMolecular structureFormula is a list of elements in a compoundoExH C O1286oThe problem with this is there is no structure of arrangementsCondensed structureShows connection between atomsoCHCHCHCH3223HHHHHCCCC HHHHHoAtoms that connect follow other atoms in the listoCarbon usually has 4 bonds and in these structures this is usually conveyedth4 bond is connected to the next carbon in the chainCondensed structure in heteroatomsoCHOH3Carbon is connected to oxygen and 3HsCHOH3Oxygen has 2 bonds but connects to 4 thingsMost things in organic chemistry bond to 4 thingsoIn this case you know that the oxygen itself has 4 electrons in itself 2 lone pairsie oxygen has 2 valence electrons at its disposalB 3C 4N 3O 2F 1Si 4P 3S 2Cl 1Br 1I 1
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