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Lecture 16Athens I AgoraDemocracy1Battle siteThermopylai2Leader of the winnersXerxes3Leader of the losersLeonidas King of Sparta4Next battle in this war Salamis naval battle5War itself Persian WarsSigma is for sorosburial tumulus of heroesClassical Age 48079323 BCEDemocracyoriginal meaning demospeople kratos cracypowerbasis liberty and equality freedom women slaves and local aliens were not includedother polei still have oligarchy and tyranny Polis of the Athenians Attica Theseus synoicismamalgamation of all villages in surrounding area Tribute to Theseus Asty fortified urban centerchora acropolis demos4 tribes early Archaic Age mafia Early Archaic Political StructureDemos governed by 9 archonsleaders aristocrate birth and wealth qualification powerful and influential King Archon Basileusreligious festival and ceremonies masked as Dionysus Polemarch military Eponymous Archoncivil affairs year named after6 thesmothetes3 had all the power except the thesmothetes recorded the laws held power for 1 yearAreopagus Councilmet on a hill of Ares consisted of Archons that had previously been in office part of council for the rest of their lives supervised the Archons audits the present ArchonsEkklesiaassemblyaristocrats farmers and businessman artisans poor were not members elected Archon How to achieve rule by the people democracy reduce control of aristocratic oligarchyLegally politicallyeconomicallyDrako legal reformsDraconianexcessively harshfirst written law code in Athens wide use of the death penaltySolon Aristocrate poet businessman soften Draconian lawslegal reform Heliaia law courts transfer power from Archons to peoplepoor eligible for jury dutypower for poorpolitical reform Ekklesia new members included poor qualification for office now wealth not birth opens to farmer and craftsmaneconomic classes4 classes of citizens
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