MIDTERM 1 REVIEW
Peleus and Thetis: the myth of Rome’s foundation starts with their wedding. Discordia
(Ares) was the only goddess not invited, so she threw a golden apple into the wedding to
cause a disruption in the harmony, and she successfully did. On the apple had ‘to the most
beautiful’ and a fight between Juno (Hera), Minerva (Athena), and Venus (Aphrodite)
occurred. Jupiter (Zeus) gave the decision to Paris (a mortal Trojan Prince, located on
Mt. Ida, son of Troy). Juno gave him power, Minerva gave him wisdom, and Venus
gave him sex. He therefore chose Venus, who gave him Helen of Troy, which caused
Menelaus (the king of Sparta) to start the tenyear siege of Troy to get Helen back.
Aeneas is a Trojan general that escaped the sack of Troy, and settled near the Tiber
River, naming is Lavinium after his wife.
Once Aeneas’ son Iulus (Ascanius) turned 18 he and his father claimed a new city for
Iulus (Ascanius) called Alba Longa.
Alba Longa had fourteen kings, and the 13 and 14 kings are Numitor and Amulius
who were twins. Numitor was known as the good twin, while Aemulius was known as the
evil twin. Numitor was the first king for Alba Longa before his brother and had a few
sons and one daughter named Rhea Silvia. Amulius drove his brother out and killed all
his sons so he would not have any successors that would overtake Amulius. Rhea Silvia
was forced to become a Vestal Virgin (one who cannot have sex or the punishment would
be to be buried alive), thus assuring Amulius would never have any of Numitor’s
offspring to overtake him. Rhea Silvia claimed Mars raped her, which resulted in her
pregnancy of twins Romulus and Remus. They eventually grow up after Faustulus
found them from a wolf and figure out their identities, resulting in a fight against Amulius
putting Numitor back in power. They want their own cities, and go back to where they
were found as babies off of the river. The two hills at the top of the rivers are found to be
the Palatine and the Aventine. They bicker over which one is better, and eventually just
become the king of each individually. The Pomerium was a special boundary that each
city had, which was symbolic and realistic. Remus destroyed Romulus’ Pomerium
because he was not getting as much support as his brother, and Romulus ends up killing
Remus. Rome was then found by Romulus on the Palatine.
Rome is situated in a cluster of seven hills: Palatine, Aventine, Capitoline, Quirinal,
Viminal, Esquiline, and Caelian. These hills are interrupted by a small river that creates
a small valley that leads to an island in the middle of the Tiber River, known as the Tiber
Island or between the bridges.
The area surrounding Rome is known as Latium. The Apennine Mountains are known as the backbone of Italy. It is a wide area for farming near the sea. It was chosen due to four
(1) The Hill: more defensible, soil good for agriculture, great water supply
(2) The Tiber: first and easiest place to cross, easy transportation to the sea
(3) Natural Crossroad: natural trade route for the Greeks and Etruscans
(4) Natural Resources: timber, stone, metal deposits, salt pans
The Etruscans were the major civilization present in this time and heavily influenced
Rome. However in the 8 century Greeks established colonies and took over. There were
three important influences on Rome:
(1) The Natives
(2) The Etruscans
(3) The Greeks
1000 – 900 BC is when the earliest graves were found, giving us the knowledge of their
Start of the Regal Period (753 – 509 BC)
April 21, 753 is the traditional date of the founding of Rome. The beginning of Rome is
signified by the first stonewall built around the base of the Palatine between 750 and 725
BC. Within 200 years, Rome expanded off the Palatine into the Esquiline, moving the
graves here. A mix of Etruscan and Greek aspects were evident here with stone buildings,
a market place in the forum, a palace, drainage systems, a Curia (central meeting hall),
and unified religious practices. Due to the trades the Tiber River allowed overseas, an
expansion in the military occurred. In 550 BC, Rome is known and seen as a large and
There were The Seven Kings chosen by a group of elders (this is known as Tyrannoi aka
not born into power).
(1) Romulous was the only king with one name. He joined with Titus Tatius
(who does not actually count as one of the seven kings) from the North East
of Rome. After Romulous killed Remus, people were hesitant to come to Rome
so it become more of an Asylum and was mainly populated by males. They needed
women, so Romulous invited their neighbours, the Sabines to a ‘Family Day’. The
Romans kidnapped and raped the Sabine women (The Rape of the Sabine
Women), who eventually fell in love with their abductors. The women united the
Sabines and the Romans, resulting in one government with Romulous and Titus
(2) Numa Pompilius was a Sabine. He was a religious reformer, and created
the new calendar with twelve months (instead of eight).
(3) Tullus Hostilius was Latin. He was a military leader, and responsible for
the early victories of Rome as well as the expansion of Rome.
(4) Ancus Marcius was Sabine.
(5) Tarquinius Priscus was an Etruscan. Tarquinius the Elder, scholars used
to think this shift from Latins and Sabines to an Etruscan leader signified some
unknown meaning in Rome’s history. (6) Servius Tullius, either Latin or Etruscan.
(7) Tarquinius Superbus possibly related to Servius Tullius (#6). Known as
Tarquin the Proud, he became corrupted and alienate by his people. His
youngest son was Tarquinius Sextus, who married Lucretia who committed
suicide. As a result the kings are driven out, and Romans decide to establish a
new type of government.
In 509 BC Tarquin was expelled, which signified the end of the Regal Period and the start
of the Republic.
The Republic (509 – 31 BC)
Res Publica refers to a public thing in Latin, where the modern word Republic comes
from. This new system of government is an unparalleled political system based upon
competition. On September 13, 507 BC the Temple of Iuppiter Optimus Maximus
(Jupiter, the best and the greatest) was created, and was the largest temple in the
Mediterranean. Three gods were worshipped here known as the Capitoline Triad
(Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva).
Rome became a major city by their population, economic power, and military power
growing enormously. Tarquin Sextus went back to the Etruscan neighbours and form an
alliance against Rome to put Tarquin back on the thrown. He aligned with Veii,
Tarquinii, and Clusium. Lars Porsenna was the king of Clusium and was the head of
the Etruscan alliance with Tarquin.
Horatius was a Roman soldier that sacrificed himself to save Rome. When the Etruscans
had forced the Roman army back into Rome, it meant they could be easily taken over. So
Horatius destroyed the bridge when all Romans were back in Rome, and jumped into the
Tiber River with all his equipment. Instead of drowning, he is saved by the God of the
Tiber River and put back on Roman territory, and saved Rome from the Etruscans.
Mucius Scaevola (Lefty) had the idea to sneakily invade the Etruscan’s camp during the
night to kill Lars Porsenna. When he did he fell asleep and when he awoke he did not
know which of the two men he saw were Lars Porsenna and his scribe. He ended up
killing the scribe by accident and is captured. LP says he was to torture Mucius, however
Mucius stuck his right hand into a flame to show his strength and the strength of Romans.
Lars Porsenna gets freaked out and ends the fight and goes back to the Etruscan land,
leaving Mucius with the nickname Scaevola meaning ‘lefty’.
In 496 BC, the Battle of Lake Regillus took place. The people of South East Latium
gathered together and waged