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Psychology 1101 Final Exam Notes-1.docx

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University of Ottawa
Classical Studies
Richard Burgess

Psychology Final Exam NotesChapter 1Thinking Critically with Psychological Science1 Hindsight BiasIt is the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it Also known as the Iknewitallalong phenomenon Ex Hindsight bias After the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre of 32 people it seemed obvious that school officials should have locked down the school despite its having the population of a small city after the first two people were murdered With 2020 hindsight everything seems obvious2 Overconfidencewe tend to think we know more than we do Once people know the answer to something hindsight bias makes it seem obviousso much so that the person becomes overconfidentEx Robert Vallone and his associates 1990 had students predict at the beginning of the school year whether they would drop a course vote in an upcoming election call their parents more than twice a month and so forth On average the students felt 84 percent confident in making these selfpredictions Later quizzes about their actual behavior showed their predictions were only 71 percent correct Even when students were 100 percent sure of themselves their selfpredictions erred 15 percent of the time3 Humilityan awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives4 Critical thinkingthinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions Rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions 5a The scientific methodA selfcorrection process for asking questions and observing natures answers 5b Theoryan explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events 6 Hypothesisa testable prediction often implied by a theory 7 Operational definitiona statement of the procedures operations used to define research variables Ex Human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures 8 Replicationrepeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances 9 Case Studyan observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles 10 Surveya technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group 11 Wording Effectssubtle changes in the order of wording or question that can have major effectsforcing critical thinkers to reflect on how the phrasing of a question might affect peoples expressed opinions12 Populationall the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Note Except for national studies this does not refer to a countrys whole population13 Random samplea sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Larger representative sample are better than small ones but a small representative sample of 100 is better than an unrepresentative sample of 50014 Naturalistic observationsobserving and recording natural behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation Naturalistic observation does not explain behavior It describes it15 Correlationa measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other RememberCorrelation indicates the possibility of a causeeffect relationship but it does not prove causation Ex Correlation need not mean causation Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men Does this mean that marriage causes men to lose their hair or that balding men make better husbands In this case as in many others a third factor obviously explains the correlation Golden anniversaries and baldness both accompany aging16 Correlation coefficienta statistical index of the relationship between two thing from 1 to 117 Scatterplotsa graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation18 Illusory correlationthe perception of a relationship where none exists When we notice random coincidences we may forget that they are random and instead see them as correlated Thus we can easily deceive ourselves by seeing what is not there19 Perceiving order in random eventsrage for order is the phenomenon that we look for order even in random data 20 Experimenta research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process the dependent variable By random assignment of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors 21 Random assignmentassigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups 22 Doubleblind procedurean experimental procedure in which both the research participants the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies 23 Placebo effectexperimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent 24 Experimental groupin an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variable 25 Control groupin an experiment the group that is not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment 26 Independent variablethe experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied 27 Dependent variablethe outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable 28 Modethe most frequently occurring scores in a distribution29 Meanthe arithmetic average of a distribution by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores 30 Medianthe middle score in a distribution half the scores are above it and half are below it31 Rangethe difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 32 Standard Deviationa computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score33 Normal cure normal distributiona symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it 95 percent fall within the 2 deviation and 5 in the third deviation34 When is an observed difference reliablea Representative samples are better than biased samples b Lessvariable observation are more reliable than those that are more variable c More cases are better than fewer 35 Statistical significancea statistical statement of how likely it is than an obtained result occurred by chancea reasonable doubt means not making much of a finding unless the odds of its occurring by chance are less than 5 percent an arbitrary criterion36 Culturethe enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next 37 Ethics of experimenting on humans1 obtain the informed consent of potential participants 2 protect them from harm and discomfort 3 treat information about individual participants confidentially and 4 fully explain the research afterward Moreover most universities today screen research proposals through an ethics committee that safeguards the wellbeing of every participantChapter 2The Biology of Mind38 Phrenologya popular but illfated theory that claimed bumps of the skull could reveal our mental ability and our character traits39 Biological Psychologya branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior Some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists neuropsychologists behavior geneticists physiological psychologists or biopsychologists
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