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CLA2101 First Midterm Keywords

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Classical Studies
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Acropolis: A settlement, usually a citadel that is built on the most elevated area, for defence reasons; in a city. Apsidal: Describes a room or building with an apse style – semicircular wall or recess. When the Pattern Ware people took over the settlements in EH3 – MH, they changed from rectangular long house to small apsidal houses. There is also Megarons that has a semicircular wall or recess on the opposite to the main entrance. Ashlar masonry: The building style first introduced in the building style of old (first) palaces on Crete. Stone is cut in rectangular fashion and laid in parallel courses. Basileus: Greek word for ruler; king. During Mycenaean times it was used to call a minor local official. Cist grave: A burial type used in Early Helladic. It is a shallow rectangular grave cut into the earth. It is sometimes stone-lined or slab-built. It usually contains multiple burials and sometimes grave gifts. It is located outside of the settlement. Citadel: Means “Little City”, it is the smaller or inner fortified city that is usually on Acropolis. Corbelling: An arch created from rows of Ashlar Masonry projecting outward from a wall, and bearing the weight of the next row above it. Each row projects slightly beyond the one below. It is used to create the Tholos tombs in the Late Helladic period. Cult: Physical manifestation of religion, including items and acts such as rituals, clothing and dedications. Cycladic figurine: White idols the Cyclades in early Bronze Age. It marks the beginning of using marbles to craft. It is usually found in graves and is very small. Mostly resemble females (fertility/sexuality) and has very little anatomical and facial features. It is mostly flat backs and folded arms. The true function of the idols are not known, some guesses goddesses, spirits, or used for amulets. Cyclopean walls: Walls built of huge unworked limestone boulders which are roughly fitted together. Between these boulders are smaller hunks of limestone to fill the gaps. The exterior is roughly hammer- dressed, but the boulders themselves are never carefully cut. The cyclopean walls can be seen at the Mycenaean palaces. Dromos: It is a long entrance way into the Tholos tombs of the Mycenaean Late Helladic. Emporium: A place where merchandise is collected or traded. Faience: Fine glazed pottery. The snake goddess that Sir Arthur Evans discovered in Knossos was made of Faience. Fresco: Wall painting made by rapid applications of colors to plaster while still damp. Frying pan: A vase discovered in the Cyclades in early Bronze Age, it is decorated with incisions with spiral motif, fish, boat and triangle (symbolism of fertility?). The function is unknown; thought to have cosmetic function as a mirror, or made for kitchen. Griffin: A mythological beast with the body of a lion and wings and head of an eagle. Lion – king of the ground, and eagle – king of the sky. Horns of Consecration: Evans’ name for the clay or stone architectural elements that resemble the horns of a bull. Usually used on palace or shrines. It is thought to have divine significance. Ingots: Mass of metal cast into a convenient shape for storage or transportation to later to be processed. Kamares ware: The most characteristic of the MM pottery. Fine wares in a polychrome over a dark background. Most of them were found in the Kamares cave on the south side of Mount Ida. Pots were very fine and given the name “egg shells”. They were not items for storage, but luxurious items. They were not created in the palace. Analysis of the clay concluded that the clay was imported from somewhere else. Labrys: Double headed axe, could be used for ceremonies or the sacrifice of the bull. A labyrinth might have meant “the place of the double axes”. Larnax: A small terracotta chest; oval and used by the Minoans as burials in MM along with Pithoi (single burials). Also used for bathtubs. The burials were usually rectangular with gabled lids. The sides are decorated with abstract patterns, octopuses and scenes of hunting and cult. Lawagetas: Means “leader of the people” probably a general; the leader of the army. Libation table: A table with liquid offerings, often through Rhytons, are poured at religious sites. Linear A: an undeciphered script consisting of simple linear signs apparently derived from older hieroglyphic or pictograph script; used by Minoans in the Second Palace period on clay tablets and religious vessels of stone. One symbol stands for one syllable, most likely were records of products and for administered reasons. There are 90 symbols. Linear B: a deciphered script used by Mycenaeans consisting of simple
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