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CLA 2110 - introduction to archaeology lecture notes.docx

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University of Ottawa
Classical Studies

LECTURE ONEWhat Is Archaeology1 Anthropology social sciencespage 12 in text book A Physical Anthropology biologicalbiological and physical features of man concerns the study of human biological or physical characteristics and how they evolved B Cultural Anthropology social culture of people studied by living among the modern day people of different places ex indonesia analyzes human culture and society 2 of its branches are ethnography study at first hand of individual living cultures and ethnology which sets out to compare cultures using ethnographic evidence to derive general principles about human society C Archaeologyethnoarchaeology study of the past cultural anthropology of the past is the past tense of cultural anthropology whereas cultural anthropologists will often base their conclusions on the experience of actually living within contemporary communities archaeologists study past humans and societies primarily through their material remains the buildings tools and other artifacts that constitute what is known as the material culture left over from former societies2 History humanitiesstudy of things writtenpage 13 in text book A Ancient HistoryhistoriaresearchinquiryPrehistoryperiod before written records ex Dakhleh Oasis Project Egypt B Classical Archeologyarchaiologiaancient history3 Science natural sciencepage 13 in textbookChapter 1 questions midtermIntroduction1 What is archaeologyStudy of the human past of all human existence Archaeology is a combination of anthropology social sciences history humanities and science natural science2 What is a cultural anthropology b physical anthropology In what ways do these disciplines overlap with archaeologya Cultural Anthropologystudy of human society and culture studied by living among the modern day people of different places ex indonesiab Physical Anthropologystudy of biological and physical features of man the branch of anthropology dealing with the genesis and variation of human beings internet Princeton definitionArchaeology is the study of the past is the study of cultural anthropology of the past archeology the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their culturesinternet Princeton definitionArchaeology cultural anthropology of the pastforensic anthropologist study of bones ex tv show Bones3 What is the difference between ancient history and archaeology In what way do these disciplines overlapHistorians study ancient writings the writings of the past where as archaeologists study physical findings from ancient times4 In what ways do archaeologists and ancient historians cooperateex Dakhleh Oasis Project EgyptArchaeologists find the texts for the historians to study5 In what way does archaeology overlap with the natural sciencesArchaeologists have to develop a picture of the past just as the scientist has to develop a coherent view of the natural worldNew archaeology in which every artifact is considered importantNatural scientists study what archaeologists find6 Why does archaeology always have an anomalous position within academiaArchaeology is so vast there are so many disciplines it is difficult to assign to one departmentLECTURETWOWhos who The history of Archaeology or the Discovery of the PastMany things indicate that there have been Roman curiosities here but above all the ship that has been found in our time sunk to the bottom of the late almost 12 ells under waterAeneas Silvius Piccolomini Pope Pius II 16th centuryModern ArchaeologyMid 19th century three major developments1 Discovery of the antiquity of humankind Ideas that human life on earth went back much further than few thousand years before Christ creation invention of therm prehistory time before written records2 Three Age SystemCJ Thomsen A Guide to Northern Antiquities 1848 Stone age oldest Bronze age middle Iron Age youngest3 Principle of evolutionCharles Darwin The Origin of Species 1859 natural selection survival of the fittest principle of evolutionDarwins influence was felt not only in archaeology for example evolution in pottery typology but also in the political though of Marx and the anthropological though of EB Tylor evolution of society from savagery to barbarism to civilization17981800 Napoleon in Egypt brought scholars with him cataloged everything they could find Description de lEgypteJean Francois Champollion 17901832 decipherer of hieroglyphics and father of Egyptology Finding of the rosetta stoneCuneiform script deciphered 1850s One of the Amarna letters 14th century BCESchliemann looked for the site of the Iliad and Odessydifferent layers uncovered at the site of Troy Schliemann started to excavate in 1871The hills Hissarlik Turkey 1873thought he had found the Treasure of Priam of TroyArchaeologySpeculative Phase until c 1850Beginnings of modern archaeology c 18501900Classificatoryhistorical period c 19001960New Archaeology c 1960
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