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CLA2110 Mid Term Questions.doc

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Classical Studies
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Questions for midterm testIntroduction1What is archaeology Archaeology is a sub discipline of anthropology involving the study of the human past through its material remains2What is a cultural anthropology b physical anthropology In what ways do these disciplines overlap with archaeologyCultural anthropology is a sub discipline of anthropology concerned with the nonbiological behavioural aspects of society ie the social linguistic and technological components underlying human behaviour Two important branches of cultural anthropology are Ethnography the study of living cultures and Ethnology which attempts to compare cultures using ethnographic evidence In Europe it is referred to as Social AnthropologyPhysical Anthropology is a sub discipline of anthropology dealing with the study of human biological or physical characteristics and their evolutionThese disciplines overlap with archaeology through ethnoarchaeology where like ethnography archaeologists live among contemporary communities but with the specific purpose of understanding how such societies use material culturehow they make their tools and weapons why they build their settlements where they do and so on3What is the difference between ancient history and archaeology In what way do these disciplines overlapIn the broadest sense just as archaeology is an aspect of anthropology so too is it a part of history To archaeology however which studies all cultures and periods whether with or without writing the distinction between history and prehistory is a convenient dividing line that imply recognizes the importance of the written word in the modern world but in nor way denigrates the useful information contained in oral histories4In what ways do archaeologists and ancient historians cooperateArchaeology can also contribute a great deal to the understanding even of those periods and places where documents inscriptions and other literary evidence do exist Quite often it is the archaeologist who unearths such evidence in the first place5In what way does archaeology overlap with the natural sciencesArchaeology is a science as well as a humanity That is one of its fascinations as a discipline it reflects the ingenuity of the modern scientist as wel as the modern historian The technical methods of archaeological science are the most obvious from radiocarbon dating to studies of food residues in pots Equally important are scientific methods of analysis of inference The analytical concepts of the archaeologist are as much a part of that batter y of approaches as the instruments in the laboratory6Why does archaeology always have an anomalous position within academia Archaeology covers such a broad field that it is hard to place it in one specific fieldChapter 1 7Divide the history of archaeology into 4 phases mention the name of the phase and indicate the time frameSpeculative Phase until c 1850Beginnings of modern archaeology c 18501900ClassificatoryHistorical Period c 19001960New Archaeology c 19608As Man is thinking about his past for as long as he exists why did archaeology only emerge in ththe 19 centuryArchaeology emerged in the 19th century because there was no rhyme or reason behind archaeology in the early attempts at making sense of the past There was no guidelines people just dug into the ground as they so desired9What three major developments in the research into the past triggered the birth of modern archaeology around 1850The first was the discovery of the antiquity of humankind ideas that human life on earth went back much further than few thousand years before Christ Creation invention of the term prehistoryCJ Thomsens Three Age System Stone Bronze and Iron AgeCharles Darwins Principle of Evolution natural selection survival of the fittest principle of evolution Darwins influence was not only in archaeology but also in the political thought of Marx and the anthropological thought of EB Tylor evolution of society from savagery to barbarianism to civilization10In what sense was the decipherment of hieroglyphics by Champollion important for the understanding of Ancient EgyptIf you can understand the language it helps to understand the culture11Why is Heinrich Schliemann less important for archaeology than say General Pitt Rivers despite his great discoveriesSchliemann is less important for archaeology for his discovered because he smuggled the treasure out of Turkey into Greece his excavation site was excavated by others as well and his discoveries were not as significant as others12What three achievements were made by Sir Arthur Evans in his excavations at Knossos Crete from c 1900 onwardsMinoan Civilization c 31001450 BCELinear A undeciphered Minoan Linear B Mycenean deciphered by Michael Ventris in 1952restoration of Palace13In which way did he still look like Heinrich Schliemann when interpreting material remainsHe built up the palace walls to what he believed they looked like instead of keeping them as is
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