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midterm 2 review

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University of Ottawa
Classical Studies
Efharis Kostala

ATHENA  Their Greek and Latin names- possible meaning of their names : Minerva (Roman)  Powers on nature and/or society: urban goddess  Their character, attributes and domains: virgin goddess, represents wisdom and logical thinking, goddess of war and victory  Titles that indicate these powers and domains Athena Pallas, Athena’s girlfriend Pallas  Their symbols Aegis and spear (war and protection), the owl and the snake (wisdom, life, death), olive tree (life, agriculture and peace)  Sacred places, centers of worship, temples and rituals Athens, her temple is Parthenon, the most important celebration for her is the Panathenaic procession.  Myths o The birth of Athena – born from Zeus’ head o Athena and the palladium – Kills her friend Pallas by accident and creates a small statue (a wooden idol) and names it Palladium and takes her friend’s name, hence Athena Pallas. o The contest between Poseidon and Athena for the city of Athens – Poseidon creates a violent earthquake and a flood(?), Athena built a ship, Poseidon was the god of horses, Athena invents the chariot and bridle. Poseidon represents raw energy of elements, Athena channels the energy in peaceful achievements. Therefore, Athena wins. o Athena, Hephaestos as the parents of Athenians (the birth of Erichthonios) – Hephestos attempts to rape Athena, then Gaia is impregnated and gives birth to Erichthonios (erion = wool and chthon = earth). Leads to autochthony of Athenians o Athena and Arachne – Athena “Ergane” (ergon = work). Arachne claims she is a better weaver than Athena (hubris). Athena gets mad and turns her into a spider (weaves webs) o Athena and Tiresias – Tiresias saw Athena naked while she was bathing so she blinded him (looking taboo) APHRODITE  Their Greek and Latin names- possible meaning of their names : Venus, Aphro-foam + dite-emerged  Powers on nature and/or society: fertility goddess, oriental goddess, goddess of sex and marriage, sea goddess  Their character, attributes and domains: sex, fertility  Titles that indicate these powers and domains  Their symbols sex, love  Sacred places, centers of worship, temples and rituals Cyprus and Cytherian , temple at Knidus in Asia Minor, Aphrodisiac was her festival  Myths o The birth of Aphrodite – eros/eris, tension, castration of ouranus and also daughter of Zeus and Dione (dual birth) o Aphrodite and Ares caught by Hephaestos – Hephaestos catches Aphrodite in bed with Ares (uncontrollable passions; sex and violence, meant to be together) o Aphrodite and her relationship with Anchises – Aphrodite had a love affair with him which is one of the reasons why she sided with the Trojans. Asked him not to boast about them having sex. He leaves troy and starts a new life, ancestors of the Julian family in Rome. o The judgment of Paris (Eros and Eris) – Eros/Eris: forced union between Thetis and Peleus. Eris was not invited, throws a golden apple to the earth. Paris finds it and Athena, Aphrodite and Hera were fighting for it and they all offer him something, but he ends up picking love (offer of Aphrodite) and she makes it so that he goes to Sparta to meet Helen (Eros) o Pygmalion and Galatia – Pygmalion is repelled by the prostitutes on the island so he makes a beautiful sculpture and names it Galatia. Prayed to Aphrodite that the statue would come alive and she grants his wish. ARTEMIS  Their Greek and Latin names- possible meaning of their names : Diana, Potnia Theron  Powers on nature and/or society: wild nature and hunting  Their character, attributes and domains: youth, childbirth, moon  Titles that indicate these powers and domains huntress  Their symbols bow, arrow, accompanies by a wild animal, usually a deer  Sacred places, centers of worship, temples and rituals Arcadia – wild amazonian women  Myths o Artemis and her punishing, wild nature as shown in the myths of Kallisto, Orion, Actaeon, Niobe, and Iphigenia – Kallisto: princess dedicated to Artemis. Zeus finds her very beautiful and tricks her into going into bed with him (transforms into Artemis), she has a son named Arcas. Hera finds out and transforms her into a bear. Years pass and her son is hunting, sees a bear, attempts to kill it but zeus intervenes and turns them into constellations in the sky (big dipper, little dipper). The constellations never rest beyond the horizon’s level (can’t rest) because Hera forbids it. Orion: a hunter who tried to rape one of Artemis’ companions. Artemis sends a scorpion to sting Orion to kill him. Acetaeon: hunter that entered forbidden territory and saw Artemis naked. She turns him into a deer and his hounds killed him. Niobe: a queen that brags about her fertility and thinks that she is better than the goddess Leto (who is Artemis’ mother). Apollo and Artemis kill all her children, Niobe is transformed into a crying rock. Iphigenia: 3 versions, he boasted he was a better hunter than Artemis, killed her sacred deer or did not offer best produce of the year. Agamemnon either had to sacrifice his daughter or save her o Atalanta and the Calydonian boar hunt - artemis sends a boar to the calydonian town because it did not sacrifice their first harvest. Group of men kill the boar. Artemis creates a dispute between the men a big fight breaks out. And the boar hyde was awarded to Atalanta (wife of meleager) who is the human equivalent of Artemis but she sacrificed her virginity. She met her husband because he defeated her in a foot race by throwing 3 golden apples to distract her o Hippolytus and Phaedra (Artemis vs Aphrodite) – Hippolytos vowed to remain chaste and serve Artemis. Aphrodite gets made and makes it so that Phaedra (his step mother) falls in love with him. He denies her and she goes to her husband and tells him that he tried to rape her and he gets killed. APOLLO  Their Greek and Latin names- possible meaning of their names : Pheobus  Powers on nature and/or society: plague/healing, flocks and shepherds, prophesy  Their character, attributes and domains: youthful and athletic  Titles that indicate these powers and domains hunter  Their symbols archer (bow and arrow), musician (lyre), wreathed with
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