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CMN 3103 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Phoneme, Trauma Trigger, Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN 3103
Professor
Peruvemba Jaya
Study Guide
Midterm

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CMN3103: Midterm Review
Chapter 1 Qualitative Methods
Introduction
Research methods should be considered as a whole
Look at the broad picture and look at the choices and difference between qualitative and
quantitative research
Strengths to both methods? Mixing a combination of the two?
Epistemological Foundations and Paradigms
Positivist and naturalistic paradigms and world views
Scientific/positivist paradigm identified with quantitative research and the naturalistic paradigm with
qualitative research
Now we have reached a point where we combine these epistemologies together in a single study
with flexibility and sophistication and ease
Coied ith the soial siees ad life siees i theo ad histo, does’t hae to e
structured or strict to a certain view (there are multiple interpretations from person to person and
theory to theory)
Ideological division of quantitative and qualitative approaches in the 90s, felt that they should be
purists and stick to the foundations of each school of thought
Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative approaches in the same project (there are
now journals that cater to this approach to mixing)
Schools of Thought
Quantitative Research
o Meaningfully expressed by numbers
o Provides counts and measures
Qualitative Research
o Meanings, concepts, and definitions
o Quality assessed through words, images, and description
You’e still esposile fo itepetig the data ad udestadig the ues, ods, et. What is this
information telling you about a particular phenomenon? Making sense of the information is the most
important.
Qualitative
Quantitative
- Subjective
- Soft data, soft science
- Inductive process
- Broader focus
- Uncovering meaning and discovery
- Multiple realities
- Words and narratives and the building
bocks in analysis
- Less generalizable
- Final report is a narrative with extracts
from the words of the participants thick
contextual descriptions
- Objective
- Hard data, hard science
- Deductive process
- Precise process
- Cause ad effect relationships
- Single reality
- Number statistics are the building blocks in
analysis
- Generally greater generalizability
- Final report would be a statistical analysis
with correlations, means, and standard
deviations
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Triangulation: Multiple Lines of Sight
Theories
o Different theories to inform your understanding about the information you attain
Researchers
o Multiple researchers working together; own impressions and ideas
Data Technologies
o Different data collection and analysis methods
Multiple Lines of Action
Use of Triangulation in Research Methodology
Most researchers have a methological technique they are most comfortable using
Methods impose certain perspectives on reality
Triangulation: originally more common in surveying actives, map making, navigation, and military
practices
For many researchers, triangulation is multiple data-gathering techniques to investigate the same
phenomenon
Requires researchers to be fluent in multiple methods
Discrete, intertwined strategies/techniques in each primary research scheme
Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation
We do not conduct research only to amass data
The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of systematic
procedures
Research on human beings affects how these persons will be viewed
The basis for symbolic interaction as a theory is frequently attributed to social behavioral work of
Dewey, Cooley, Parks and Mead, but Blumer is considered the founder of symbolic interactionism
Different Schools of Thought: Symbolic Interactionism
Blumer/Chicago school: focus on anthropological participant observation; reality is constituted by
how people define it (Involves a set of related propositions that describes and explains aspects of
behavior)
Kuhm/Iowa school: generalizable research of operational concepts; stable structure and predictable
reactions in people
Symbolic Interactionism: Similarities Across Different Schools of Thought
Symbols are used by people to give meaning to social objects and to shape interaction
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Through a process of reflection people can objectify themselves
Why Use Qualitative Methods?
Many researchers believe social sciences depend on sterile survey techniques
Scientific researchers may emphasize a more positivist view or may be primarily interested in
individuals and their so called life-worlds
Some Qualitative Methods We Will Examine
Interviewing
Focus groups
Ethnography
Unobtrusive Measures: archives
Historiography
Case Studies
Action Research
Content Analysis: qualitative
Chapter 2 Designing Qualitative Research
Purpose of Social Science Research
To uncover the underlying patterns of social life which may be regularly appearing and typical and
expected, or there can also be variations and reactions
We accomplish this by developing and refining theory, which can be tested through empirical
research
Theory
Theory can be explanations about a phenomenon and can be used to classify events whether those
have already occurred or ca be used in predicting the future to some extent
The starting point or smaller units for theory building is the use of concepts
How does our own sense of self effect identity?? Process of reflection allows us to understand
ourselves in relation to other people (social identity theory)
Ex. Strategic communication and the impact in an organization> how to define strategic
communication and what sense we are using it in> audience research> medium>
Big picture comes down to a specific idea in order to have appropriate building blocks for a strong
theory
Concepts
Symbolic elements
Foundation of communication and thought
Two distinct parts
o Word, symbol, term (have meaning from the perspective we are defining it as)
o Definitional element
Ideas & Theory
Theory-Research
o Come before empirical research; lead to refutation through research
Research-Theory
o Research leads to theory development
o Research initiates, reformulates, deflects and clarifies theory
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