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Final Exam review.docx

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Rumaisa Shaukat

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•Modern vs. Traditional (F. Toennies) Gemeinschaft (Traditional) Gesellschaft Divine transcendence (Modern) Reason Village City Villagers Proletariat Agriculture Industry Local exchange National exchange Demographic dispersion Mass dispersion Folkloric culture Technologies of contact Common culture Interest groups Generality of roles Traditional ties that bind Traditional ties that bind Contractual ties Group mentality Anonymous ­ Gustave Le Bon (Psychology of the Crowd);  o Interested in crowds and studied why they all acted the same etc. Is the  behavior is contagious? Looked at characteristics (racists, sexist etc.)  These attributes only were for people of color, women, immigrants but not  white males of middle or upper class. Pavlov says you can condition  behavior. He used a dog, a cube of sugar and the bell to stimulate the  salvation.  ­ Stimulus Response; (critiques);  o  people are not as passive; it leaves out the other factors of civilization, like   cultural, religion, the environment.  ­ Experiments in propaganda films; Why we fight.  Movie watched in class ­ 1926­1927­ sound came to the movies.  ­ Three main American genres: western, musical and… ­ We see that media has a great impact on people, audience, government, etc. the  audience was easily manipulated (guy shooting at the screen, people were scared).  Films were education, entertainment, and effective.  ­ 1941; Japanese aircrafts attacked Pearl Harbour. ­ The nation is at war with Japan, Germany and ­ Italy, countries believed to want o impose brands of dictatorship and fascism on  the rest of the world.  ­ Stereotypical attitudes and beliefs were quickly taken up and reinforces by the  mass media and other venues.  Citizens become soldiers ­ Volunteers and recruits; 15 million people were assigned to military duties ­ Exchange or civilian attire and attitude with soldier mentality; shaping the  motivation and the morale of the soldier.  ­ Place military goals above personal convenience.  ­ Recruits were from different social origins and venues of life, and most were  ignorant of public affairs and international events.  The Why We Fight films ­ 1942­ Turning to Hollywood to assist in the preparation of orientation films. ­ Frank Capra; films that explain to the soldiers why they are fighting and the  principles they are protecting.  ­ Films with factual knowledge that would shape opinion.  ­ Produced seven films that traced the history of WWII Film; “Prelude to War ­ first and most powerful film in the “why we fight series” ­ It describes the events that led up to WWII; the escalation of Japanese militarism  and the rise of fascism in Germany and Italy  ­ This was a required viewing for all men in the armed forces.  Did the films work  ­ evaluation studies by social and behavioural scientists.  ­ Teach factual information in a short time.  ­ It was possible to alter opinions and interpretations on a short term basis but not  on a long term basis.  ­ Did not alter motivations ad behaviour  ­ So films had limited effects ­ Found that the effects of mass communication were strongly influenced by  individual differences.  ­ Telegraph;  o First modern electric medium o  The telegraph is a social application of a technical capacit  (the telegraph  needed a certain language to operate, it needed to get to the people on  time.  o causes social change or determines social change o 1840 Telegraph was invented o 1844­ first telegraphs line between Baltimore and Washington (what hath  god wrought?) o 1866; coast to coast telegraph line Effects of the Telegraph o On the press;  •  Decontextualization of information • Style of journalistic writing • Notion of objectivity  • Separation between opinion and information • Readers; vast anonymous public  o  On Railroads   • Decontextualization of time and space  • Coordination of time • Division of time lines and space • The telegraph would help with knowing what time you  were going to arrive at the stop you were getting off at.  Therefore you can plan ahead ­ Radio o Blind medium that uses 4 signs; words, sound, music and silence. o Radio is everywhere o It is a mass medium and interpersonal at the same time. o The radio is interpersonal o 1901 Marconi receives a message from England by radio signal in New  Foundland, Canada. ­ Television o 1927 Philo Fransworth devised a tube that picked up moving images for  transmission o 1961 CTV becomes a private network o 1968 broadcasting act (Canada) o 1991­ It was easier to buy American content than to make Canadian  content.  o 40 – 45% of Canadian content should be showed in 1958. A content that  reflects the Canadian culture, etc. It should rise 60% in 1968 ­ The research program on why children and toddlers watch so much tv o 11 investigations  o 1958 ­1960  o Focus on uses and gratifications  o “effects” is misleading o Children used television to gravity a need Research design and methodology; 11 studies  Study 1; San Francisco; 1958­ 1959; uses of tv by children between grades 1 through 6 Study 2; San Francisco, 1958; 188 entire families th th Study 3­7; Rocky mountain communities, 1959; 1708 children between 6 ­ 10  grade.  th th Studies 8­9; Canada, 1959; 1st, 6  and 10  grade Study 10; American Suburb; data on 474 children Study 11; Denver 1960; 204 students in 10  grade  o Functions of Television;  1. entertainment  2. information 3. social utility o Possible behavioural effects; “For some children, under some conditions, some television is harmful. For other children under the same conditions, or for the same children under other conditions, it may be beneficial. For most children, under most conditions, most television is probably neither particularly harmful nor particularly beneficial . . .” S-R Theory; Period 1920- fear of new media Discipline Psychology (Pavlov) Institution Universities, governments, regulatory agencies Problematic What do media do to people? Social organization Atomized mass Human subjectivity Submissive and alienated Media Powerful and manipulating Power Reached at the level of direct impact of media Strategies Tests in labs Key concept Direct impact Two Step Flow Theory ; Period 1940s- Discipline Sociology (Paul Felix Lazarsfeld) Institution Universities, governments, cultural industries, marketers Problematic What do people do to media? Social organization plural mass Human subjectivity active meaning makers belonging to membership groups with opinion leaders Media Not powerful and subject to value system of membership groups Power At the level of opinion leaders and membership groups and pre- existing beliefs Strategies Surveys, interviews Key concepts Personal influence, opinion leader ­ Functionalism; cant satisfy a need, so you satisfy it someplace else. (by television or radio) o Two-step flow  Membership groups: information goes from media source to opinion leader than the group  Personal contact;  Opinion leader: person who gets the information first and interprets it, filters the message then will send it to the group  Pre-existing belief systems; o Rosie the Riveter Uses and Gratification; • people do to the media • 1950 to present • psychology • media industries, universities • social organization; pluralist society • Strategy; questions and interviews • Key concepts; Functional equivalent (equal purpose) • Marketers use the most Corrections on quiz 1-2; ­ Historical approach uses the following analysis- mutual contribution ­ In 1902 Marconi received a message from England by radio signal in Canada. ­ Gemeinschaft refers to traditional society ­ In the documentary “printing transforms knowledge”, James burke explains that the man who invented the printing press in 1439 was Johannes Gutenberg. ­ ***Time bias refers to societies that tend to extend themselves over centuries and resist change. Their past looks like their future and their future looks like their past. ­ The two submodes of electronic oral communication in chapter 1 is broadcast and point to point. ­ In chapter two, new media is described as different from mass media because new media are decentralized and interactive ­ According to chapter two, a connotative image is described by the wealth and lifestyle inferred from s
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