•Modern vs. Traditional (F. Toennies)
Gemeinschaft (Traditional) Gesellschaft
Divine transcendence (Modern)
Local exchange National exchange
Demographic dispersion Mass dispersion
Folkloric culture Technologies of contact
Common culture Interest groups
Generality of roles Traditional ties that bind
Traditional ties that bind Contractual ties
Group mentality Anonymous
Gustave Le Bon (Psychology of the Crowd);
o Interested in crowds and studied why they all acted the same etc. Is the
behavior is contagious? Looked at characteristics (racists, sexist etc.)
These attributes only were for people of color, women, immigrants but not
white males of middle or upper class. Pavlov says you can condition
behavior. He used a dog, a cube of sugar and the bell to stimulate the
Stimulus Response; (critiques);
o people are not as passive; it leaves out the other factors of civilization, like
cultural, religion, the environment.
Experiments in propaganda films;
Why we fight.
Movie watched in class
19261927 sound came to the movies.
Three main American genres: western, musical and…
We see that media has a great impact on people, audience, government, etc. the
audience was easily manipulated (guy shooting at the screen, people were scared).
Films were education, entertainment, and effective.
1941; Japanese aircrafts attacked Pearl Harbour. The nation is at war with Japan, Germany and
Italy, countries believed to want o impose brands of dictatorship and fascism on
the rest of the world.
Stereotypical attitudes and beliefs were quickly taken up and reinforces by the
mass media and other venues.
Citizens become soldiers
Volunteers and recruits; 15 million people were assigned to military duties
Exchange or civilian attire and attitude with soldier mentality; shaping the
motivation and the morale of the soldier.
Place military goals above personal convenience.
Recruits were from different social origins and venues of life, and most were
ignorant of public affairs and international events.
The Why We Fight films
1942 Turning to Hollywood to assist in the preparation of orientation films.
Frank Capra; films that explain to the soldiers why they are fighting and the
principles they are protecting.
Films with factual knowledge that would shape opinion.
Produced seven films that traced the history of WWII
Film; “Prelude to War
first and most powerful film in the “why we fight series”
It describes the events that led up to WWII; the escalation of Japanese militarism
and the rise of fascism in Germany and Italy
This was a required viewing for all men in the armed forces.
Did the films work
evaluation studies by social and behavioural scientists.
Teach factual information in a short time.
It was possible to alter opinions and interpretations on a short term basis but not
on a long term basis.
Did not alter motivations ad behaviour So films had limited effects
Found that the effects of mass communication were strongly influenced by
o First modern electric medium
o The telegraph is a social application of a technical capacit (the telegraph
needed a certain language to operate, it needed to get to the people on
o causes social change or determines social change
o 1840 Telegraph was invented
o 1844 first telegraphs line between Baltimore and Washington (what hath
o 1866; coast to coast telegraph line
Effects of the Telegraph
o On the press;
• Decontextualization of information
• Style of journalistic writing
• Notion of objectivity
• Separation between opinion and information
• Readers; vast anonymous public
o On Railroads
• Decontextualization of time and space
• Coordination of time
• Division of time lines and space
• The telegraph would help with knowing what time you
were going to arrive at the stop you were getting off at.
Therefore you can plan ahead
o Blind medium that uses 4 signs; words, sound, music and silence.
o Radio is everywhere
o It is a mass medium and interpersonal at the same time.
o The radio is interpersonal
o 1901 Marconi receives a message from England by radio signal in New
o 1927 Philo Fransworth devised a tube that picked up moving images for
o 1961 CTV becomes a private network
o 1968 broadcasting act (Canada) o 1991 It was easier to buy American content than to make Canadian
o 40 – 45% of Canadian content should be showed in 1958. A content that
reflects the Canadian culture, etc. It should rise 60% in 1968
The research program on why children and toddlers watch so much tv
o 11 investigations
o 1958 1960
o Focus on uses and gratifications
o “effects” is misleading
o Children used television to gravity a need
Research design and methodology; 11 studies
Study 1; San Francisco; 1958 1959; uses of tv by children between grades 1 through 6
Study 2; San Francisco, 1958; 188 entire families
Study 37; Rocky mountain communities, 1959; 1708 children between 6 10 grade.
Studies 89; Canada, 1959; 1st, 6 and 10 grade
Study 10; American Suburb; data on 474 children
Study 11; Denver 1960; 204 students in 10 grade
o Functions of Television;
3. social utility
o Possible behavioural effects;
“For some children, under some conditions, some television is harmful.
For other children under the same conditions, or for the same children
under other conditions, it may be beneficial. For most children,
under most conditions, most television is probably neither particularly
harmful nor particularly beneficial . . .”
S-R Theory; Period 1920- fear of new media
Discipline Psychology (Pavlov)
Institution Universities, governments, regulatory agencies
Problematic What do media do to people?
Social organization Atomized mass
Human subjectivity Submissive and alienated
Media Powerful and manipulating
Power Reached at the level of direct impact of media
Strategies Tests in labs
Key concept Direct impact
Two Step Flow Theory ;
Discipline Sociology (Paul Felix Lazarsfeld)
Institution Universities, governments, cultural industries,
Problematic What do people do to media?
Social organization plural mass
Human subjectivity active meaning makers belonging to membership
groups with opinion leaders
Media Not powerful and subject to value system of
Power At the level of opinion leaders and membership groups
and pre- existing beliefs
Strategies Surveys, interviews
Key concepts Personal influence, opinion leader Functionalism; cant satisfy a need, so you satisfy it someplace else. (by
television or radio)
o Two-step flow
Membership groups: information goes from media source to
opinion leader than the group
Opinion leader: person who gets the information first and
interprets it, filters the message then will send it to the group
Pre-existing belief systems;
o Rosie the Riveter
Uses and Gratification;
• people do to the media
• 1950 to present
• media industries, universities
• social organization; pluralist society
• Strategy; questions and interviews
• Key concepts; Functional equivalent (equal purpose)
• Marketers use the most
Corrections on quiz 1-2;
Historical approach uses the following analysis- mutual contribution
In 1902 Marconi received a message from England by radio signal in Canada.
Gemeinschaft refers to traditional society
In the documentary “printing transforms knowledge”, James burke explains that
the man who invented the printing press in 1439 was Johannes Gutenberg.
***Time bias refers to societies that tend to extend themselves over centuries and
resist change. Their past looks like their future and their future looks like their
past. The two submodes of electronic oral communication in chapter 1 is broadcast and
point to point.
In chapter two, new media is described as different from mass media because new
media are decentralized and interactive
According to chapter two, a connotative image is described by the wealth and
lifestyle inferred from s