Intro to Media Midterm 2: march 22, 2013
Direct Broadcasting Satellites (DBS)
1) Passive: operates on power of 1 Watt. Ex) TVROs also known as BUD for Big Ugly Dishes. They capture
satellite signals and redistribute them to homes.
2) Active: operates at 120-200 Watts. It is a relatively strong signal that can be received by a smaller
dish, often no larger than a pizza. Ex) DBS. Each home can have its own dish and the signal doesn’t need
to be redistributed among a lot.
Prior consent vs free flow of information
NWICO (1970s): new world information and communication order
Prior consent: Wanting the consent of the government before sending signals to the territories.
The US rejected this, because this interfered with the free flow and meant that the state would
have to interfere (saw it as a source of censorship- only communist countries censor things)
Fear of cultural imperialism: the US is using the media in order to colonize the countries after
WWII through popular culture and through the spread of its value system of the American Way
People feared exposure to foreign content.
The free flow of information was the doctrine of US foreign policy. People were criticising this,
regardless of the USSR’s position.
Countries were divided between the US and USSRs position. Are they going to be dependent on
those who create the technology?
The conflict between prior consent and free flow was never resolved.
Developing countries wanted fair flow of information and more egalitarian access to
Why Advertising Became Popular:
- Changes in lifestyle: mobility
- Needed to aid the senses and the purchasing decisions
- By branding and seducing the audience, the consumer can decide which product suits their
- People had more money= can buy more unnecessary things=more leisure activities.
- Selling a “life-style” was becoming easier and older patterns of life were slowly crumbling.
- Shift from a production ethic to a consumption ethic.
1 - Provided the symbolic social identity and communicate your lifestyle through the product
Women in the Media
Equating women with objects
Encourages the notion that women can be bought, sold, owned and disposed of.
A tool to get status
The commodity itself because humanized and the human becomes objectified- reversal of roles
Infanticization: Presenting women as childish
Domestication: Defining women always in relationship to their homes and partners and children
(sister, wife, parent, grandmother)
They become the object that sells another object.
Include specifics relating to:
1. Women’s changing roles
2. The presentation of diversity of lifestyles, ages, races, and appearances
3. The avoidance of exploitation
4. The use of non-sexist language
5. And balance in expert representation
Arguments by the Ad Industry
Stereotypes are useful as cultural shorthand to communicate because they work fast. (people
Ads are essentially mythical narratives that evoke desires and not designed to reflect reality
People seek identification with their ideal self
Advertising to Children
Advertising Canada Codes
Advertising that is directed to children must not exploit their credulity, lack of experience or
their sense of loyalty and must not present information or illustrations that might result in their
physical, emotional or moral harm.
Child-directed advertising in the broadcast media is separately regulated by the Broadcast Code
for Advertising to Children
Advertising to children in Quebec is prohibited.
2 Advertising to Minors: products must not be advertised in such a way as to appeal to persons
under legal age, and people featured in advertisements for such products must be, and clearly
seen to be, adults under the law.
Sponsors: Scandals put an end to sponsors creating content ; undermined the democratic use
of television; magnified the separation between “high” and “low” cultures.
Cybernetics: Theory of social control