Study Guides (238,207)
Canada (115,009)
CMN1160 (69)
Dina Salha (10)

intro to media studies midterm 1

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Dina Salha

Jan 10 - Transition From Traditional to Modern Society CONCEPTS Mass (mass media, mass culture, mass society) -recent phenomenon (due to industrialization, people moving to cities) -undistinguished -enjoyment of the same content -drawing the same meaning -can generate fragmented audience(s) i.e. Entertainment shows, sitcoms all have very similar formulas because the mass enjoys the same content -you increase consumption through messages (advertising) Media -technology, human voice, body (all transmitting messages through different mediums) -disparities in studies of various media because it is easier to study technology/media rather than the human voice/body Communication -elusive concept -range/possibilites of meanings -could be personal, mediated, hierarchal or equalitarian -could designate a channel of communication, content or form of communication -could highlight psychological, sociological or economic traits -could refer to writing, speech or signs and gestures Traditional Society (Gemeinschaft) Modern Society (Gesellschaft) Divine transcendance Reason Oral communication Mediated communication village city villagers proletariat agriculture industry Local exchange National exchange Demographic dispersion Mass dispersion Folkloric culture Technologies of contact Common culture Interest groups Generality of roles Specialization Traditional ties that bind Contractual Ties Conviviality Anonymous Group = individual Individualism − in traditional society people resisited change because change can cause disturbances in power/hierarchy − everything was fixed around the church and God, rules and the law − church = authority − traditional society believed in conviviality (friendliness, talking to neighbours, etc) whereas modern society is anonymous − traditional society was conventional – you abided by the norms of the group − values, norms and judgements came from authority who instilled fear − if the king was killed, it was as if you killed God himself because the king was the will of God (divine transcendance) − after this, people could all become reasoning individuals and come together to determine norms, laws etc − in traditional society, people shook hands or gave their word, but that is not enough in modern society which is why we have contracts Propaganda − enforces an idea − political − makes opinion into truth − BLACK propaganda = lack of knowledge on the source − GREY propaganda = unclear source − WHITE propaganda = aware of the source Jan 15 – The Telegraph − pony express existed before the telegraph − it is the least used form of messaging now (snail mail) ThoughtsAbout Media − technological determinism (technology determines change in society, advances in technology) − Monopoly and Media Concentration (not everyone has the same access to media, ownership is in the hands of a few people) − Structuration (how media changes the structures of society) Morse Code − people started to use morse code in telegraphs, and therefore started shortening words to make communication easier Telegraph − 1845 – 1900 “Technology of the Day” − object of myth and pop culture − is is the first modern electric medium − seperated transportation from communication − by studying the telegraph, we can determine the function of modern communication Historical Approach − situates the object of study in its context of emergence and evolution − tracks its continuity and series of events that may be similar or dissimilar − explains their formation or deviation − for example: telegraph, telephone, electricity in cities, radio, TV, etc − the Telegraph is a social application of a technical capacity “Writing in Distance” − electric transmission and simultaneous messages − Samuel Morse (from 1830 to 1838) holds public demonstrations of the telegraph in order to get financial assistance − public enthusiasm is necessary in order to obtain private funds − 1845 – still no considerable funds because no one knew what to do with the telegraph (personal use?) − 1844 – US congress gave some money and helped to create telegraphic line from Washington to Baltimore (50 km) − no sale by government − private enterprises developed the telegraph − explosion of small businesses: services to sell − Western Union: monopoly Technology and Social Organization − interest in commercial and private enterprises because their communication (messages) was continuous and regular − interest in the press, train transportation − telegraph becomes an instrument of commerce − generates hate towards commercial companies − technology does not dictate its form or social application Contributions of the Telegraph: The Press − due to the telegraph, stories were shared across the country and newspapers were not local anymore − information must be decontextualized − created a new style of journalistic writing (inverted pyramid) − notion of objectivity\ − seperation between opinion and information − Readers: vast anonymous public On Railroads − standardization of time (the telegraph could transmit accurate, current times of all major cities) − coordination of transportation and commerce On Trade − future markets and trade (because of the telegraph, one could plan to meet and trade in a future time) − trade released from geographical and temporal limitations Stages Revealed in Historical Investigation − new technologies are received with enthusiasm − at first, they are thought to be for personal communications − promise of a better life with every new technology − American government steps aside in developing technology and lets private social interests intervene − social interests give technology a social application − emergence of monopolies + privatization − structural effects on institutions first − communication is seen as a global cultural phenomenon HOW PRINT CHANGED KNOWLEDGE − The pulpit (church) was a teaching aid, news and knowledge came from there − people passed on what they knew orally − church = cathedral of knowledge − facts for people in the past were direct personal knowledge/memories − old people were looked up to because of their long, full lives − the act of writing was mystical as it was usually done in church − people (monks) who could read and write knew they were keeping knowledge alive − in the 14 century there was an economic boom, and due to more selling, buying and trading, forms and bills became more popular and necessary − by 1940, the printing press had show up in many major European cities (Gutenberg's invention) − people didn't have to use memory anymore − churches used the printing press for bibles and documents − printing press made it possible to print money, as well as propaganda − with the printing press people were able to read books to learn rather than spending many years as an apprentice nd Jan 22 – Persuasion and Propaganda The Psychology of the Crowd (LeBon) Stimulus-Response (Pavlov) − Propaganda is a specific type of message in its most general meaning (message is the object of communication). Depending on the context, the term may apply to both the information contexts and its actual presentation − in the communications discipline, a message is info which is sent from a source to a receiver − can take different forms: linguistic, alphabet, sign language Propaganda + Persuasion are similar in that: A) they are both strategies of contact B) to influence human behaviour in a particular context C) unequal exchange of information between the center and the periphery D) non-reciprocal message E) simultaneous contact with the population F) manipulation of information -they differ in that propaganda has ideological and political interests – could use terror and violence -persuasion corresponds to economic interests, uses psychological gratification Early Theories of Mass Communication − shameful origin of mass communications − theory: Gustave Le Bon and “The Psychology of the Crowd” − crowd has feminine attributes − emotional, easily manipulated, instinctive, irrational − Foundation of Stimulus-Response theory − Gustave believed that the crowd was made up of uneducated, lower-class, non-white people STIMULUS-RESPONSE THEORY Period – 1920 (Fear of new media) Discipline – Psychology Institution – Universities, governments, regulatory agencies Problematic – What does media do to people? Social Organization –Atomized mass Human Subjectivity – Submissive and alienated Media – powerful and manipulating Power – reached at the level of direct impact of media Strategies – tests in labs Key Concept – Direct Impact Example – Payne Fund Study Jan 29 – Radio Significance of Radio -what makes radio different from other media? -Blind Medium which uses 4 signs: words, sounds, music and silence -Radio is everywhere, it is a mass medium and interpersonal at the same time − Radio uses electromagnetic spectrum − telegraph and morse code = inspiration for radio invention in order to communicate wirelessly (ie on military ships) − James Maxwell discovered the electromagnetic spectrum and later harnessed radio waves to transmit and receive sound − Gugliemo Marconi made practical application of the spectrum − in 1901 Marconi receives a message from England by radio signal in Newfoundland, Canada Transmitting Voice: Reginald Fessenden − 1906 creation of Audion Tube (by Lee de Forest) − Fessenden broadcasts to ships at sea on Christmas Eve − 1910 – DeForest broadcasts a performance from the New York Metropolitan Opera House − Static-free transmission developed by EdwinArmstrong and in 1939 he builds experimental station in New Jersey using Frequency Modulation TITANIC − radio becomes a household word in 1912 − 1912 – David Sarnoff (founded NBC) uses radio to learn news about Titanic disaster Patent Pool − laws were adapted (by the Navy) to install on all ships some sort of wireless communication − The radio consortium: AT&T, Westinghouse, GE, RCA(in 1912, Congress passes act that anyone who wants to operate radio station needs a license, pushes for private ownership which started a monopoly) Making Profit from Radio − Frank Conrad of Westinghouse started to make money after private household radios were introduced, first DJ of his era − built a station called KDKA − they started toll broadcasting (paid advertising) XWAand KDKA − 1920 – XWAin Montreal begins broadcasting in Canada − 1920 – KDKAAmerica's first licensed commercial station by Westinghouse − 1922 – CJCG first radio license (Canada) − 1927 – Canada's Diamond Jubilee is broadcast − 1929 –Aird Commission releases its report on radio broadcasting in Canada Reaction to TV − FM radio − the Transistor Portable − Format radio − Satellite Radio AIRD Commission − named after Sir JohnAird − examine the dangers ofAmerican programming on Canadian Sovereignty and Culture − 1929 – Danger! − Recommendation: Fund for Public Broadcasting − 1932 – P.M. Bennett: Canada to have private and public broadcasting − 1932 – Canadian Radio BroadcastingAct passed and resulted in the creation of CRBC (Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission) − 1936 – CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation) − 1937 – CBC responsible for licensing private radio broadcasters Fowler Commission − 1957 – Fowler Commission ch
More Less

Related notes for CMN1160

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.